时时彩平台注册

 
 

朝鲜族

ssmz_cx

 

民族概况:

chaoxianzurenkouwei1923842ren(2000nian),zhuyaofenbuzaijilin、heilongjiang、liaoningdongbeisansheng,jizhongjuzhuyutumenjiang、yalvjiang、mudanjiang、songhuajiangjiliaohe、hunhedengliuyu。qizhong,jilinshengchaoxianzurenkouwei114.5wanren,heilongjiangshengwei38.8wanren,liaoningshengwei24.1wanren。ciwai,haiyou14.8wanduochaoxianzusanzajuyubeijing、shandong、neimenggu、hebei、tianjindengdi。gaigekaifanghou,suizhezhongguojingjidexunsufazhan,yuelaiyueduodechaoxianzurenkouyouchuantongjuzhudidongbeisanshengqianwangjingjindiqu、huanghexiayou、zhangjiangxiayou、zhujiangxiayoudiqudengyanhaijingjikaifangqu。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzuzuidadejujuqushijilinshengyanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhou,2000nianquanzhourenkou221wan,qizhongchaoxianzuyou80wanren,zhanwoguochaoxianzuzongrenkoude41.6%。yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouweiyujilinshengdongbu,dichuzhongechaosanguojiaojie,dongyueluosibinhaibianjiangqujierang,nangetumenjiangyuchaoxianxianjingbeidao、liangjiangdaopilin,binlinribenhaiyuhanrixiangwang。zizhizhouxiaxiayanji、tumen、longjing、helong、hunchun、dunhualiushijiantu、wangqingerxian,quanzhoumianji4.27wanpingfanggongli,yuezhanjilinshengzongmianjide1/4。weiyujilinshengdongnanbudezhangbaichaoxianzuzizhixian,shichaoxianzulingyigeminzuzizhidifang,chuyuzhangbaishandehuanbaozhizhong,2000nianquanxianchaoxianzuyou1.36wanren。

yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhou,shiyigeshanqingshuixiu,fengguangqili,qihouyirendehaodifang。zheilishuzhangbaishanqiulingdidai,qunshansongli,xiaguzongshen。xiangyoushengmingdezhangbaishan,qishixiongwei,fengguangqite,jingsexiumei,zhangbaishanzhufengbaitoushanhaiba2744mi,shiwoguodongbeidiqudiyigaofeng,shandingshangdetianchiwanruoyikuaititoudebiyu,shiwenmingzhongwaidelvyoushengdi。tianchibeiceyouyiquekou,pubuxuankongerluo,haohaoqingliubenyongzhixie,shiyalvjiang、tumenjianghesonghuajiangdeyuantou。benliubuxidehailanjiang、buerhatonghe、gayahe、hunchunhe、gudonghedengbiboruran,wanyanhuihuan,zirunzhefeiwodetudi。dichuzhong、chao、esanguojiaojiedehunchunshifangchuan,zechengxianchu“jimingwensanguo、quanfeijingsanjiang”dedutebianjingfengmao,zheilijutumenjiangchuhaikou——ribenhaijinyou15gongli,tianqingzhiriyixikejianzhanlanderibenhai,shilvyouzhexiangwangdeshengdi。

chaoxianzujujudezheipiantudi,bujinshanchuanlingxiu,erqiewuchanfengmei。damianjideyuanshisenlinfugaizheqifuzhongdiedeshanluan,suyou“zhangbailinhai”zhicheng,shiwoguozhongyaodelinyejidizhiyi。yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouxianyoulindimianjijin320wangongqing,senlinfugailvchaoguo80%,linmuxujiliangda3yiduolifangmi;zhangbaixianlindimianji23wangongqing,senlinfugailv85%,linmuxujiliangda2qianwanlifangmi。zaihaohanwubiandelinhaizhong,shengchangezhongyaocai、shanhuohetutechan,zuizhumingdeshi“rencan、diaopi、lurongjiao”sanbaoyijixianwei、youliao、fangxiang、ranliaodengzhiwuziyuan;milinshenchu,qixizhedongbeihu、meihualudengduozhongyeshengdongwu。dixiayunzangzhefengfudekuangchanziyuan,rutong、qian、xinhejinkuang,ziqingchaoshijiuyijingkaishikaicai。qitarutie、ti、lin、shimo、shiying、shihuishi、youmuyeyandengkuangzang,chuliangyeshifenjuda。

chaoxianzudiqushiwoguobeifangzhumingde“shuidaozhixiang”。xiangyoushengmingdeyanbiandaomi,jingyingtitou,qingxiangpubi,qingdaiyanbianlongjingxianmingyanxiangsuochandaomijiucengbeiqindingweigongmi。zheilihaishiwoguozhongyaodeyanyechanqu,zizhizhouyanyezhongzhimianjiyida7000duogongqing,nianchanliang1wanduodun。yanbianzhumingde“pingguoli”,guoda、rouduo、guoxinxiao,zhiyefengfu,suantianshidu,muqianzaizhongmianjiyida1wangongqing,nianchanliang7wandunzuoyou。ciwai,rencan、dangcan、beimu、shanputao、songrong、muer、yuanmodeng,yeshichaoxianzudiqudetechan。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzuyoubenminzudeyuyanhewenzi。chaoxianyuguishushangwuyoudinglun,yibanrenweishuaertaiyuxi。woguochaoxianzuxianzaishiyongdeyuyanwenzichengweichaoxianyuhechaoxianwen。zheizhongpinyinwenzi,shizaichaoxianwangchaoshizongzhuchixiayu1444nian1yuechuangzhi,zuichuchengwei“xunminzhengyin”,jiancheng“zhengyinwen”,sucheng“yanwen”,hougaichengchaoxianwen。chaoxianwenxianyou40gezimu,shiyinsuzimu,pinxieshibatongyiyinjiedeyinsudiechengzikuai,gouchengfangkuaixingwenzi。yiqianchaoxianwenzizhongcengjiayonghanzi,xianzaidouyongminzuwenzipinxie。

历史沿革:

chaoxianzushiyouxianglindechaoxianbandaoluxuqianru、dingjudongbeidiquerzhujianxingchengdewoguokuajingminzuzhiyi。1982nianquanguorenkoupuchashifaxian,zaozaimingmoqingchu,youyibufenchaoxianzudezuxianjiuyidingjuzaiwoguohuabei、dongbeijingnei。ruhebeishengqinglongxiantagoujiliaoningshenggaixianpojiagoucunxingpodechaoxianzu,tamenzaidangdidingjuyiyou300duoniandelishi。

cong19shijizhongyekaishi,yougengduodechaoxianrenjielianbuduandicongchaoxianbandaoqianru,zheishizhongguochaoxianzudezhuyaolaiyuan。youyudangshichaoxianfengjiantongzhijiejicankudeboxueheyapo,tebieshi1869nianqianhouchaoxianbeibuzaoshoulelianxujiniandeziranzaihai,jihanjiaopodechaoxiannongminfenfenbeijinglixiang,yueguoyalvjianghetumenjianglaidaozhongguo,zailiangjiangyidaikaiken,tonghan、mandengzurenminzajugongchu。jutongji,1870nianyalvjiangbeianyidaiyiyou28gechaoxianzujujuxiang。1881nian(qingguangxuqinian),yanbiandiquchaoxianzuyida1wanduoren。1883nian,zaijian、linjiang、xinbindengxiandechaoxianzujuminyiyou3.7wanduoren。tongyishiqi,wusulijiangyananyidaiyeyiruweishubushaodechaoxiannonghu。dancishiqianrurenkouhaibushihenduo,daduoshuchunlaiqiuqu,juzhushangbuwending。

19shijimo,qingzhengfudefengjinzhengcezhujiandedaojiejin,suihoushixingzhaominkaikenzhengce。1881nianzaijilinshezhihuangwuju,zainangang(hunchun)、yanji、donggoudengdishezhizhaokenju,zhaomuyimin,fanyingmuyiruzhe,junweizhongguochenmin。1885nian,qingzhengfujiangtumenjiangbeianzhangyue700li、kuanyue50lidediquhuaweichaoxianzunongminzhuankenqu,gengbianyuchaoxiannongmindapiyirudongbeidiqudingju。

1910nian,ribenqiangpochaoxianzhengfuqianding《hanrihebingtiaoyue》,chaoxianlunweiribenzhimindi。bukanrenshoudiguozhuyicankuboxueheyapodechaoxianrenminhebufenaiguorenshi,daliangyiruzhongguodongbeigedi,dao1918nianyida36wanduoren。

时时彩平台注册1931nian“jiu?yiba”shibianfashenghou,ribendiguozhuyizhiyongsangeyueshijianjiubazhongguodongbeidiqulunweiqizhimindi。weijiaqiangduidongbeidiqudetongzhi,badongbeijianchengqiwuzigongyingdi,ribendiguozhuyizaizuzhiribennongminyizhidongbeidiqudetongshi,haiqiangzhichaoxianrenyijuzhongguodongbei。ju1940nian8yuetongji,zi1937niandao1940nian,ribenyi“jituankaituomin”dengmingyiqiangzhiyimindaodongbeigedidechaoxiannonghujiuda14725hu。

dao1945nianribenzhanbaiqian,zaizhongguodechaoxianrenshuliangyida216.5wan。1945nian8yueribentoujiangyihou,bushaochaoxianrenkaishiluxufanhuichaoxianbandao。jingguojinianderenkoubiandong,zhi1949nianzhonghuarenmingongheguojianlihouquyujibenwending。1953nianquanguodiyicirenkoupuchashi,chaoxianzurenkouwei111.1wanren。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzuxianminyuejiangkaikenzhiji,chujingshifenkunnan。danshi,tamenzaihan、mandengminzudebangzhuxia,tamenpijingzhanji,xinqinlaodong,zaikentuohuangdideguochengzhong,jianlijiayuanbingzhujiandingjuxialai,chengweiwoguominzudajiatingzhongdeyiyuan。zuoweiyigenongyeminzu,chaoxianzuyizaihanlengdebeifangzhongzhishuidaozhucheng,tamenzaiwoguonongyeshishangchuangzaoxingdijiekailezhanxindeyiye。yuanlaitumenjiang、yalvjiangliuyuduoweishanquheqiuling,qihouhanleng,wushuangqizuiduan110tian,zuizhang160tian,erqiedoushiyecaocongsheng,shugenpanraodehuangyuanhuozhaozedidai,yibanbuyizhongzhishuidao。danchaoxianzuxianminbuweijianxin,baodituohuang,jijishizhongshuidao,zhongyushishuidaozaiwoguodongbeidiqudeyizhongzhi。zaitonghuaxiandadianzidengdi,zuizaoshizhongshuidaochenggong,yihoukuodadaolinjiang、huairen、xingjing、liuhe、hailongdengdi,1877nianyanbiankaishizhongzhi。1906nian,chaoxianzunongminzaihelongxianyongzhixiangdajiaodongkaijuelezhangda1308midequdao,guangaile33qingshuitian,binghuodejiaogaochanliang,congciyanbiandiqudedaotianmianjizhunianzengjia,chengweiwoguodongbeidiquzhumingdeshuidaochanqu。jutongji,zhi20shiji20niandai,jilinshengyanbiandiqu、jilindiqushuitiande100%hetonghuadiqushuitiande85%,heilongjiangshengshuitiande100%,liaoningshengkaiyuandiqushuitiande90%、xingjingdiquheshenyangdiqushuitiande85%、fushundiqushuitiande80%hedandongdiqushuitiande70%,junshiyouchaoxianzurenminkaifagengzhongde。

chaoxianzurenminqinlao、yonggan,tamencongchaoxianbandaoyijuzhongguodongbeishiyiwusuoyou,zaizhongguoshenshouribenzhimintongzhizhe、fandongzhengfuhefengjiandizhudesanzhongyapoheboxue,yinertamendegemingxinghenqiang。chaoxianzurenminjijicanjialezhongguogongchandanglingdaodegegejieduandefandi、fanfengjiandouzheng,weixinzhongguodejianlizuochulezijiyingyoudegongxian。

20shiji20niandaimo,dangshidongbeidiqudezhongguogongchandangzuzhihaibujianquan。1928nianzhonggongmanzhoushengweizhengshijianlihou,tebieshizaigongchanguoji“yiguoyidang”yuanzezhidaoxia,chaoxianzuzaoqigongchanzhuyizhefenfenjiaruzhongguogongchandang,dangzaidongbeidiqudeliliangdedaoxunsuzhuangda。ju1931nian11yuezhonggong《manzhoushengweikuodazuzhidewentijueyian》jizai,dangshidongbeide“dangyuanrenshuyoubaiyurenfazhandaoerqianduoren,youshiergeyouzuzhidedifangfazhandaowushiwuge”,qizhong“85%dedangyuanshichaoxianzutongzhi”。

时时彩平台注册“jiuyiba”shibianhou,zuguodongbeidadizaodaoribendiguozhuyideqinlvetongzhi,chaoxianzurenminguozhebeicantongkudeshenghuo。ribenqinlvezhefengkuangdituixingjingcha、tewutongzhi,liyongxianbingjingchahe“teshebudui”weiziweituandengfandongwuzhuang,shixing“sanguangzhengce”,renyitusharenmin,zhenyagemingliliang。ribenqinlvezhebaxuduochaoxianzucunzhuangshaohui,jiangjuminjititusha。liru1932nianhunchunxianyantonglaziyicibeishaole20gecunzi、1600duohurenjiadefangwu;zaisanhanlihehuanggou,1000duomingwugufunv、ertongquanzaoshahai。1933niandao1935nian,zaibudao30wanrenkoudeyanjixian,siyuribenqinlvezhetudaoxiadechaoxianzujingdaliangwanrenzhiduo。yanbianminyaobeifendikongsu: “dongtiansileduochengduo,xiatiansilejiaogouche。wanrenkenglimaimanren,huangshanyedisiguduo。”chongfenjieluleribenqinlvezhecanbaodetongzhi。ribenqinlvezhehaiqitugeduankangriyoujiduiyurenminzhijianxiuqixiangguandelianxi,qiangposhixing“jituanbuluo”(jizhongying)zhengce,shichaoxianzurenminshiquletudi、fangwu,qilizisan、jiaporenwang,zhenggeminzubinyumiewangdejingdi。

danshi,direnyucanbao,chaoxianzurenmindefankangyuchilie。zi1928nianzhongguogongchandangyanbianquwei(1930nian8yuegaidongmantewei)chengli,chaoxianzutonggezurenminjiujinmituanjiezaizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoxia,jijikaizhanlekangridouzheng。cong1930nianchundao1932nianchun,yanbiandiquxianhouxianqile“wusa”baodong、“bayijidun”baodongheqiushou、chunhuangdouzheng。tongshi,jianlilekangriyoujiduihequnzhonggemingtuantifanrihui、fanditongmeng、nongminxiehuideng,jijikaizhangezhongkangridouzheng,buduanjiribenqinlvezheyichenzhongdedaji。

时时彩平台注册zaikangrizhanzhengshiqi,chaoxianzurenminbuweijianxian,zuzhifanriyoujidui,jianjuekangjiribenqinlvezhe。houlaizheixieyoujiduifazhanzhuangdachengweidongbeikangrilianjunzuizhongyaodezuchengbufen,zhengrudongbeikangrilianjunzhuyaolingdaozhoubaozhongtongzhisuoshuo: “1932niansuojianlidejianqiangdedongmanyoujiduihe1933niansuojianlideqiangdadepanshiyoujidui、zhuheyoujidui、mishanyoujidui、tangyuanyoujidui、raoheyoujiduidoushiyougemingdechaoxiantongzhisuochuangjiande。houlaitamenfazhanchengweikangrilianjundiyi、er、san、si、liu、qijun。diwujunliyeyoubushaoyouxiudechaoxiantongzhi。”dongbeidekangriyoujigenjudizuichuyezhuyaojianlizaichaoxianzujujudiqu,genjudidechaoxianzurenminbujincongrenli、wuzidengfangmianquanlizhiyuankangriyoujidui,haiyuzhibingjianzuozhan,youlidifensuilerijunjielianbuduande“taofa”,chengweidongbeikangriyoujiduiwudejianqianghoudun。

kangridouzhengzhong,geminzuhuxiangzhichi,huxiangyanhu,yongxianlexuduoyingxiongshiji。1936nianqiu,kangrilianjunde8mingchao、hanzunvzhanshizaidirendezhuijixia,fenyongzuozhan,zhidaoshejichuzuihouyikezidan,yiqitiaojinmudanjiangguangrongxisheng,yongxianxuexiexiale“banvtoujiang”debeizhuangshipian。1939nian,kangrilianjun10mingchaoxianzushangyuanzailinjiangyigemilinyangshangshi,jingchangcongyiwei60duosuihanzulaodayeneilidedaoshipin,youyicilaodayeweishangyuanmoyumimianshibeidirenfaxian,tazaikuxingxiashizhongjianzhenbuqu,meiyoutulubandianyouguankangliandeqingkuang,yongzijideshengmingbaohulechaoxianzuzhanshi。zairu,shirenzhonggongdongmanteweishujidetongzhangrongtongzhidaizhongbingzhihuizhandoushibeidirenfaxian,dangshitongzhangrongbingzhongbunengxingzou,hulitadecuijinshu(chaoxianzu)bukenzijixianzou,beizhetongzhangrongbiandabianzhuanyi,zuihoudanjinlijie,errengongtongyingyongjiuyi。

jiefangzhanzhengshiqi,chaoxianzurenminzaizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoxia,jijitoushenyuxinzhongguodejiefangshiye。zheigeshiqi,chaoxianzurenminyifangmianjijixiangyingdangdezhishi,jianligongguledongman、nanmangenjudi,tongshihaizaigenjudikaizhanlerehuochaotiandetudigaigeyundong,jijizhiyuanjiefangzhanzheng。lingyifangmian,chaoxianzujujudiquxianqicanjunrechao,chuxianxuduosongzi、songfucanjun,xiongdijiemeizhengxiangbaomingcanjundeganrenchangmian。jutongji,dangshidongbeijiefangqucanjundechaoxianzuqingzhuangniangongyou62924ming,zhanchaoxianzurenkoude5%;yanbiandiquyou22.2wanduomingqingzhuangnianhe1.9wanduoliangdachezuchengdanjiaduiheyunshuduizhiyuanqianxian。tamenmaozheshengmingweixian,gongxianlezijideliliang。

时时彩平台注册zaizhenggexinminzhuzhuyigemingdouzhengshiqi,chaoxianzurenmindeyingxiongernvzaizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoxia,yingyongfenzhan,buxixisheng,puxielewushukegekeqidezhuangmeishipian。juyanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouzhengfutongji,zhengfudengjizaicedegeminglieshijiuyou14740ming,qizhongchaoxianzugeminglieshizhan97%yishang,yanbianchaoxianzuzhongpingjun20hulijiuyouyiminglieshi。rujin,yanbiandegechengzhenhexiangcundaochuchulizhemianhuailieshidegeminglieshijinianbei,zhengruzhumingshirenhejingzhisuodao:“shanshanjindalai,cuncunjinianbei”。

zaizhangqidegemingdouzhengzaizhong,chaoxianzuyongxianchuxuduojiechurenwu。liru,cengrenzhonggongmanzhoushengweijunshiweiyuanhuishuji、zhonghuasuweiaidiercidaibiaodahuizhongyangzhixingweiyuanhuiweiyuan、hongjunzhangzhengshirenhongseganbutuancanmouzhang、zhangzhengjieshuhourenhongjundishiwujuntuandiqishiwushicanmouzhangdeyanglin(1898-1936),dongbeikangrilianjunqianshenpanshikangriyoujiduichuangshiren、dongbeikangrilianjundiyijunjiechuzhihuiyuanzhiyi、yukangrilianjunzhumingjianglingyangjingyubingjianzuozhandelihongguang(1910-1935),cengrenzhonggongbeimanshengweiweiyuan、dongbeikangrilianjundisanjunjunzhangjidisanlujuncanmouzhangdexuhengzhi(1909-1942),cengrenzhonggonghebeishengweishujijiantianjinshiweishujidelitiefu(1901-1937)deng。ciwai,haiyouzhuminghuihuadashi,beiyuwei“xinjiangyuneidizaimeishushanggoutong”diyiren、“xinjiangbihuakaogudiyiren”dehanleran(1898-1947),zhongguowuchanjiejigemingyinleshiyedekaituozhezhiyi、chuangzuozhongguorenminjiefangjunjunge(《balujunjinxingqu》)hechaoxianrenminjunjunge(《chaoxianrenminjunjinxingqu》)dezhenglvcheng(1918-1976)deng。

时时彩平台注册chuantongshang,chaoxianzunongcunyouxuduoyixiangfuxiangzhuweimudejiechengminjianhuzhuhezuozuzhi。congqileixingkan,jiyoujiejuejingjikunnandegezhong“qi”zuzhi,yeyou“pinaxi”、“saogeli”、“dulie”dengyunonghuoxiangguandezuzhi。lingwai,haiyougegecunluoweisanglierzuzhiqilaide“xiangdu”。

时时彩平台注册“qi”shiyizhongjiejuecunminlinshikunnanerxingchengdehuzhuxinggongtongshenghuozuzhi,shiyiqichengyuanzhongchoujiyixieqianyingjishiyongweimude。genjubutonggongneng“qi”zuzhifenweixuduozhong。youhuzhuguanhunsangjide“hunliqi”、“hunsangqi”deng,youweicunluogongtongshiqingde“dongqi”,youhuzhunongshide“nongqi“,yeyouweimouqiutonglingrenzhijiandeyouyierzuzhide“tonglingqi”。ciwai,haiyou“jinxueqi”、“qianqi”deng。qizuzhiyibanyicunluoneijuminsuozucheng,danyeyouchaoyuecunluofanweide。yuanlaiqizuzhizhuyaoyounanxingsuozucheng,danhoulaichuxianxuduoyinvxingchengyuanweizhongxindeqi。yibandishuo,chuligonggongshiyehezengjinqinmufangmiannanxingqijiaoduo,ernvxingqiduoyixilihefuzhuweimude。“qi”deguimoyoudaxiao,xiaoqipingjun4—5ren,erdaqiyoushushiren,shenzhishubairen。qizuzhizaijiejuecunmindeyingjishiqinghejiaqiangqinmufangmiancengqiguojiaodazuoyong。

“pinaxi”shiyizhonghuangong,tashiyijiatingweidanweidenonghuozhong,yihuangongxingshijiejuelaolihechulibuzuersuishizuzhidexianghufuzhuzuzhi。“pinaxi”shinonghuoxuyaoyidinglaolidanzhikaojiatinglaolibuchengshizuzhiqilaide。qirenshuyou2rendao10renyinei,daiyouzanshixingqingxiangweiqitezheng。houlai“pinaxi”bujinzainonghuozhong,erqiezaijianeishougongye、fangwushishicaipingtaizhucehexiushan、momidengfangmianyeguangfanbeiliyong。

时时彩平台注册“saogeli”shihantianlidishiweilaolihechulidehutongyouwuerzuzhiqilaidelaolifuzhuzuzhi。tayouyouniudejiatinghemeiyouniudejiatingzuchengyigezuoyedanwei(yiban3—4hu),baokuo5—6minglaoli,tamentongshizuoyedangeyoufengong。yigecunluoliyibanyoujige“saogeli”zuzhi,“saogeli”youyibanlinli、qinqizhijianzucheng,guzheiyangzuzhiqilaide“saogeli”weichishijianbijiaozhangjiu。

时时彩平台注册“dulie”shishuitiandiquweiyouxiaodijinxingguangai、chayang、tianjianchucaodengyicixingxuyaohenduolaolidezuoyesuojiechengdezuzhi,yibanzaitianjianchucaoshizuzhiqilai。“dulie”yicunluoweidanweizuchengyige,zheilibaokuocunzhongquantinannvlaoli。“dulie”zuzhiyounongqihenongle,nongqiyibanchengweidulieqi,qishangxieyou“nongzhetianxiazhidaben”。nonglegenjudifangbutongyoufengzheng、fengwu、junwudengbutongjiaofa,qileqiyiluo、zhanggu、yuangu、fagudengdajileqiweizhu。chengyuanchuquganhuohuoguilaishiyidingrangnongqihenongleduidatouzhen。shuitiandiqudecunluoyibandouyou“dulie”zuzhi。

时时彩平台注册“xiangdu”shiweizanglierzuchengdehuzhuzuzhi。guoqu,jihumeigecunluodouyouxiangduzuzhi,meihudoujiaru。gaizuzhidefuzerenchengweidujian,zailaorenzhongxuanju。xiangdupingshibaoguanheguanli“sangyu”(songzangshishiyongdedataijia,tashiyoushijirentai),rusheijiayousangshi,xiangduchumiancaochisangli,fuzedongyuannianqingrentaisangyuhezangli。guoqu,xuduochaoxianzunongcunhaicunyouxiangdu,danzai“wenhuadageming”shiqizuoweifengjianmixinbeipaichu,sangyuyebeixiaohui。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochenglihou,suizhenongcunhezuohuadeshixian,guoqunongcunjianlidegezhongxianghufuzhuzuzhiyejiujinqishimingerchengweilishi。danshi,yixiehuzhuxisuyizhiyanxuzhijintian。

chaoxianzuyouchaoxianbandaoqianyizhizhongguodongbei,shuyubeidongxingqianyi,tamenhuozheyinshengjisuopo,huozheweiduobiribenqinlvezhezhenyahejinxingminzudulidouzhengeryuejiangdaozhongguo。suoyi,chaoxianzushehuizuzhichulechuantongdeminjianhuzhuzuzhiyiwai,gengduodeshigeleifanrituantihedaiyouzizhixingzhideshehuituanti。zaichaoxianzulishizhong,bijiaozhumingdetuantiyou1910niandaide《kenminhui》、《fumintuan》dengdaiyouzizhixingzhidetuantihe《dahandulijun》、《beilujunzhengshu》、《guangfutuan》、《xilujunzhengshu》dengfanriwuzhuangtuanti,1920niandaide《canyifu》、《zhengyifu》、《xinminfu》dengminzuzhuyixiliedefanrituanti,1940nianzhonghouqide《yanbianrenminminzhudatongmeng》、《dongbeichaoxianrenminminzhulianmeng》、《chaoxianrenminminzhutongmeng》、《jilinshengminzhulianmeng》dengzhongguogongchandanglingdaoxiadechaoxianzuqunzhongtuanti。

zhonghuarenmingongheguochengliyihou,shixingminzuquyuzizhizhengce,zaishaoshuminzujujidiqujianliminzuzizhidifang,weishaoshuminzudangjiazuozhu,zizhuguanliminzuneibushiwuchuangzaoletiaojian。jilinshengyanbiandiquzuoweizhongguochaoxianzuzuidadejujidiqu,yu1952nian9yue3richenglileyanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhou。1958nian9yue15ri,chenglilejilinshengzhangbaichaoxianzuzizhixian。

minzuquyuzizhishizhongguojiejueguoneiminzuwentidejibenzhengce,yeshiyixiangzhongyaodezhengzhizhidu。zuoweizaizhongguojiaozaojianlidedeminzuzizhidifang,yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouzaiminzuquyuzizhizhengcedezhiyinxia,zhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadenggexiangshiyededaolejiaokuaifazhan,chongfenxiangshouleminzuzizhiquanli。

时时彩平台注册yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouchengli50duonianlai,zhongguogongchandanghezhongyangzhengfushifenguanhuaihezhichiyanbiandefazhanshishicaipingtaizhuce,dangheguojiazhuyaolingdaorenzhouenlai、zhude、helong、dongbiwu、huyaobang、zhaoziyang、wanli、pengzhen、yejianying、dengxiaoping、jiangzemin、lipeng、zhurongjidengxianhoushichaleyanbian。1983niandengxiaopingshichayanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhoushi,cengweiyanbianliuxia“bayanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhoushishicaipingtaizhucedegengkuaigenghaoxie”detici;1991nianjiangzeminzaiyanbiancengweiliuxia“bayanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhoushishicaipingtaizhucechengweiquanguomofandezizhizhou”detici。yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouguangdaganbuhequnzhongjijizhengchuangminzutuanjiemofanzizhizhou。zaizhongguogongchandangminzuzhengcezhaoyaoxia,yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhoujingjishehuifazhanhenkuai,xuduojingjishehuifazhanzhibiaoweiyuquanguo30zizhizhouzhiqianlie。

yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouhairenzhenzhixingdangdeminzutuanjiezhengce,cujinminzutuanjieshiye,yanbiangeminzuhemuxiangchu,pingdeng、tuanjie、huzhudeshehuizhuyixinxingminzuguanxidedaojinyibugongguhefazhan。zaiyanbian,1954niandiyigekaizhan“minzutuanjiexuanchuanyue”huodong,diyigezhaokaiminzutuanjiebiaozhangdahui;《minzuquyuzizhifa》gongbuyihou,lvxianzhidingle《yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouzizhitiaoli》ji8gedanxingtiaoli;zizhizhoudeminzuxuanchuangongzuo、minzufazhishishicaipingtaizhuce、yuyanwenzigongzuoyijiminzuwenhua、minzujiaoyu、minzutiyudengfangmiandegongzuo,xianhoushoudaoguojiayouguanbumendebiaozhang。1990nian,guojiaminweishouyuzizhizhouminzutuanjiejinbuxianjindanwei;1994nian6yue,zizhizhoubeishengzhengfumingmingwei“minzutuanjiejinbumofandanwei”;1994nian9yue,beiguowuyuanshouyu“minzutuanjiejinbumofanzizhizhou”,chengweiquanguodiyigehuocishurongdezizhizhou。cihou,1999、2005nianyebeiguowuyuanshouyu“minzutuanjiejinbumofanzizhizhou”,lianxusancibeiguowuyuanmingmingwei“minzutuanjiejinbumofanzizhizhou”,zheizaizhongguo30gezizhizhouzhongshiduyiwuerde。

风俗文化:

zaizhangqidelishifazhanguochengzhong,chaoxianzuchuangzaochufuheshengcuntiaojianhechongmanzhihuidezhuduoshenghuofengsuwenhua。zheixiexisujinguansuizheshidaidebianqianyousuobianhua,ranqizongzhihejibenxingshiyiranrugu,yixiemeifengliangsuzhijinweirenmensuohouaihechuancheng。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzudechuantongfuzhuangyuqishenghuofangshixiangwenhe。chaoxianzujuzhuyihuokangweizhongxin,pingshinanrenpantuierzuo,erfunvzuoxiangyibanshishuangxizhedidecuishi,suoyiyizheduoshikuansongshi。chaoxianzuyibanxizhebaiyisufu,xianshichuxiaiqingjingposudetexing,guyou“baiyiminzu”zhicheng。

时时彩平台注册zaifushizhongzuijutesebingzhijinrengweirenmensuoxihuandeyaoshunvzhuang。chaoxianzunvzhuangfenshang、xiazhuang,shangzhuang“zegaoli”(duanshan)duoyongsecaimingkuai、huawenpiaoliangdechouduanhuoshaleifengzhi,yijinhenduan,zhijixiongbu,xiukoulveshou,buyongniukou,yiqianjindelianggecaisezhangdaixichenghudiexing。xiazhuangweikuansongshidecaisegaoyaozhangqun,taguozailiangsancengneiyiwai,shizhigengjiaheshen,chuanfashixianchuanqunhouchuanduanshan。yuzheizhongfushixiangxiediao,xiguanshangduochuanbaisehuotianlansedechuanxinggoubijiaoxie,zheiyufushixingchengyiti,xianshichuquxianmei。zheizhongdaban,rujinzhinengzaigezhongxiqingjieri、shenghuizhongsuojian。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzujuzhuyubeifang,youduocongshishuidaoshengchan,zhijieyingxiangqizhushixiguandexingcheng。zaichaoxianzuchuantongyinshizhong,daoguleiheshucaiweijibenyinshi,caiyaotongchangyilaweitezheng。zairichangyinshizhong,yibanyimifanweizhushi,yicaitangweifushi,jianbeigezhongfengweixiaocai。chaoxianzulilaiyisushiweizhu,buxihuanchiyounideshiwu,qiyinshitediankeyigaikuoweixinla、shuangliang、qingdan。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzufengweixiaocaihenyoutedian,yia、banweizhuyaoxingshi,youqizhumingdeshiaxiaocai,zheishiyiniansijibukehuoquede。chaoxianzuhenjiangjiua,gejiaweiaxiaocaidoubeiyoudaxiaobutongdetangang,acaiyoubaicai、luobu、yingcai、huanggua、qiezi、datoucaideng,qizhongyilabaicaizuiweiyouming。meidaoqiuji,chaoxianzufunvdouhuimangyuabaicai,zheiyichengweichaoxianzudiquyidaodutedefengjing。chuleacaiyiwai,bancaiyeshichaoxianzuxihuandecaiyaozhiyi,qizhongleishenduo。chaoxianzushanyuyonggezhongshancai、haichanpinzhurujiegeng、shacan、juecai、yeqincai、haibaicai、haibocaihexiaoyu、libeileidengzuobancai。zheizhongshengbancaizaijiuxishangposhouhuanying,tebieshishengbanniurou、shengbanniubaiyegengshichuantongjiuxishangbukehuoquedemeiweijiayao。

yibandishuo,chaoxianzuxihuanchigourou。qizhong,gouroutanghenyoutese。zuotangshigouroubixuzhulan,chishihaiyaofangdianyexiangcai、lajiaoyou、huajiaomian、yanhejiangyouzuodezuoliaodeng。shengxiaheyidawangouroutang,maoyishenhan,jiuganjuequanshenshufu,jingshenshuangkuai。gouroutangzibushenti,qurefangshu,guyou“sanfutianhegouroutang,shengguorencanlurong”zhishuo,yinergouroutangyicheng“bushentang”。xianzaichaoxianzubufenjijieyiniansijidouchigouroutang,danchigourouyouyijinji,jifengnianguojie、caobanhunsangshihuobanjiashibuchigourou。

kaorouyeshichaoxianzuxiaideyizhongmeiweijiayao。chaoxianzukaorouyibanshiyongniurou、zhuroudeng,youqixihuankaoniurou。chulekaoniurou,yupian、jiroupiandengyekeyikaozhechi,rujinkaoroudianlihaibeiyouyouyu、mingtaiyudenghaichanpinhetudoupiandeng。

lengshileizhushizhong,zuishouchaoxianzuhuanyingdeshipindangshulengmian。lengmianshiyongqiaomaimian、xiaomaimian、dianfendengweiliao,yongyamianji(guoqushimuzhiyamianjiyourenya)yachengde。lengmianfeichangjiangjiutangdeweidao,guyou“shifentang,sanfenmian”deshuofa。tangyouroutang、douzhitang、paocaitangdeng,zuishangdengdelengmiantangyaosuanyongyejihuoniurouaodetang。zuoliaoyouniuroupianhuojirousi、pingguopian、jidansi、zhima、xiangyou、lajiaomian、qingjiang、cu、weisudeng。lengmianjuyoutianzhongdaisuan、xianglitoula、liangshuangkaiweidetedian,yincibufenchunxiaqiudong,chaoxianzunannvlaoshaodouaichi。

时时彩平台注册zaichaoxianzuyinshizhonghaiyouxuduotebieshipin,qizhongzuijutesedeshiyongmimianzuodegezhonggaolei,qizhongleida30duozhong,zhuyaozaifengnianguojiehuojuxinggezhongyishishishiyong。

时时彩平台注册chuantongdechaoxianzuzhufanghenyoutese,fangwuyibanjianzaiyanshandepingchuandidai,fangwuzhengmianchaoyang,yishanbangshui,baochiposujiejing,jinliangyuziranhuanjingxiangronghe。fangwuduoweitumujiegoudecaofanghuowafang,wudingduoweisimianxiepo,fangwujianshuduo,chuzaojian、niufang、duifangdengfangjianwai,qitaquanbuweiqijushi。fangwudemenchuangbufen,fangjianyuwuwai、fangjianyufangjianzhijiandouyihuadonglamengekai,lajishitongxingdemen,guanzeshichuanghuojiange,suoyiwuneichangliang,tongfenglianghao,churufangbian。fangwuqunuanyongchengwei“wentuerbang”(yiweiwenshikang)dehuokang。zaichufangguozaoshaohuo,qireqihenongyantongguokangxiatongdaochuzhihuwai,shizhenggekangmianwenre。huokangfeichangshihedongbeidonglengxialiangqihou,yeshihechaoxianzudechuantongshenghuofangshi。guoqu,chaoxianzuyibanbushiyongyiziheshuichuang,zhuozihefanzhuojunshiduantuideaizhuo,buyongshidiefangzaiyibian。huokangkezuoshuimian、yongcanhuokaizhanqitahuodongdeduozhongyongtu。zheishichaoxianzuchuantongfangwudetedian。rujin,chuantongdechaoxianzufangwuzaichengshiliyibuduojian,zainongcunqineibubaisheyeyousuobianhua,ranerzaichaoxianzunongcunhechengshibufenjiatingrengbaoliuzhe“wentuerbang”。zaichaoxianzuzhufangxisuzhongyenengkanchulianghaodelinliguanxi,tamentebiezhongshilinlizhijiandehemuhuzhu。cunlisheijiagaifangzi,gejiajunchurenbangmang,zheizhonglaodongbujibaochou,xiangyingdi,zhurenjiayenachuhaojiujiayaozhaodai,yibiaoxieyi。

chaoxianzufeichangzhongshijiatingliyi,zichushengdaosangwangdouyouxuduoliyixiangban。zaichaoxianzuderenshengzhouqizhongzuiweiyinrenzhumudeqingdianyouzhousuishengri、jiehundianliji60zhousuihuajia。

chaoxianzujiatingdoufeichangzhongshiherenzhencaobanxiaohaidezhousuishengri。dangtianxiaohaichuanzhepiaoliangdeshengrifuzhuang,nanhaiyibanshangzhe“zegaoli”(shangyi),waijiaxiaokanjian,xiachuanlansekuzi,toudaifujin。ernvhaishangchuancaichou“zegaoli”,xiazhehongchouluoqun。shengridangtian,zuiyinrenzhumudehuodongshixiangzhengyuyanmingyunde“zhuazhou”。zaochen,jiarenweihaizibaishangshengrizhuoxi,zhuoshangfangzheyixiemi、xiaodou、dagao、miantiao、xian、shu、bi、qianbidengdaiyouxiangzhengyiyidedongxi。zaifumudefuchixia,ranghaizinataxihuandedongxi,ruguohaizinalebihuoshu,neimejianglaiyidingxuexihao,chengweixuezhe。ruguonadeshiqianbihuodamijiushuojianglaihuifacai,xianzhuamiantiaohuoxian,zeshuotahuijiankangzhangshou,dengdeng。

hunyinshirenshengdashi,zuoweidijieliangyuandehunlishourenzhongshishibiranzhishi。xiguanshang,chaoxianzuhunlian“hunyi”、“nacai”、“nabi”he“yingqin”dengchengxujinxing。hunyishifumutongguomeirenshangyihaozinvhunshi,nacaiweidinghunyishi,nabishixinlangjiasongcailiyishiduinvfangjiaxuhundexieyi。yingqinzeweijiehundianli,zheishizhenggehunlizhongzuiweizhongyaoqiezuilongzhongdeyishi。

时时彩平台注册zaichaoxianzushengmingzhouqideqingdianzhong,haiyouyigezhongyaoqingdianshiliushishouchen,chengwei“huajia”。chaoxianzuconglaidoubazunzhonglaorenkanzuoshijiatingnaizhizhenggeshehuishenghuozhongjiweizhongyaodelijie,weilaorenguohuajiajilongzhongyouzhicheng。yidaohuajiazhiri,zinvmenweilaorenbaishouxi,shejiuyan,guangyaoqinpenghaoyouhelinjuhuanjuyitang,ganxiefumuyangyuzhien,zhuyuanlaorenjiankangzhangshou。zaihuajiayishizhong,“xianshou”weizhuyaoneirong,jiwanbeimenyicixianghuajialaorenjingjiuguibaidezhushouzhili。xianshoulianzinvzhangyouzhixu、qinqiyuanjinzhibie,jizhibinkeyicijingjiuxianshou。xianshouliyoushibiejufenggedeqingdianhuodong,renmenhuozhexianhuajingjiu,huozhefushizhushou。xianlihou,laorenhefunvmenbashouxishangdeyinshifenjizaichangdenianqingrenhexiaohai,renmenxiangxinchishouxishangdedongxihuishirenjiankangchengzhang。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzushifenzhongshizangli,youbenminzuteyoudesangzangxisu。zaiguoqu,chaoxianzuduoshixingtuzang。danglaorenwangguhou,qinrensantianneibuzhunxilian、lifa,yebuzhunchiganfan,erqiebixuchuanxiao。qinyoulaidiaoyan,shouxianzaiyitiqiansankoushou,zaitongsizheqinshuxianghuerkoushou。juxingmaizangyidingyaozaidanri。rulianshiyaojisizhechuanxinyi,yuanlaideyifuzeshaodiao。santianhoumaizang。maizangqianyaoqingfengshuixianshengxuanmudi,mudiduoxuanzaishanpodeyangmian,touchaoshandingjiaochaoxia。maizanghou,fenqianzhigongpin,koushou。yihouyaolianxujisisantian,fanqianxianshanggong: diyitianshanggongjisijiao“chuyun”,diertianjiao“baiyun”,disantiandaigongpindaofendijiao“sanyun”。cihou,meifengsizhedeshengri、siri、qingming、duanwu、zhongqiujiedengdouyaojisi。suizheshidaidefazhanhejinbu,xianzaituzangyiduogaiweihuozang,chengxuyeriqujianhua。

zaichaoxianzusuishijierizhongbanyouxuduojingjiyouxi,rushuaijiao,qiuqianhetiaobandeng,rujinyichengweichaoxianzudechuantongtiyuxiangmu。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzushuaijiaolishiyoujiu,shizaiminjianzuipujihezuishouhuanyingdebisaixiangmu。anchuantong,shuaijiaobisaitongchangzai5yueduanwu、8yueqiuxidengjierilijinxing。chaoxianzushuaijiaoyibanshicansaishuangfangdouchijiao,chuanduanshanku,youtuitaozhecubudai,zuoshouzhuaduifangdeyoutuibudai,youshouhuxiangbaoyao,bisaizhongxianjiangduifangshuaidaoweishengzhe,xiguanshangtoudengjiangpinweiyitouhuangniu。saihouyoushengzhejiaoaodizuozaidejiangdehuangniubeishangraochangdiyizhou,guanzhongweizhihecai,guoquhaicengyoushengzhehuijiahoubaixiejiucaikuandaixiangqindexisu。

时时彩平台注册dangqiuqianyuwantiaobanzhisu,zaichaoxianzufengsuzhongzhanyouyidingweizhi。meifengduanwuhuoqiuxidengjieri,pingshizubuchuhudegunianghenianqingfunvmendouchuanzhexianyandechaoxianzunvzhuang,sanwujiebanjujizaiqiuqianhetiaobanchangshangdangqiuqianhuowantiaoban,rujinzheixieyeyouyouxibianweichuantongdetiyuxiangmu。qiuqianshizaibisaichangdishuqilianggenshuzhanggaodemuzhu,qiuqiandangshengyibanyongmahuoranbubianzhiercheng。dangqiuqianyibanyigaodudingshengfu。dangqiuqianshi,shaonvdezhangqunzaikongzhongfeiwu,youshixiangzhanchifeitengdebaihe,youshixiangbaihepuxiangdimian,youshiyouxiangyizhicaifengzuanruyuntian,wuxiandekuaileshirenmenwangqueleyitiandepilao。tiaobansheshijiaojiandan,yongyikuaiyidingzhangkuandemubanjiazaibanmigaodezhijiashangjike。tiaobanbisaishi,yirenzuozaizhongduanyazhu,liangduangezhanyiren,huxiangtiaoyue,woshangnixia,yuetiaoyuegao,gaodukeda3、4mi。suizhetiaobandeyiqiyiluo,tengkongerqidefunvbaichugezhongyoumeidezishi。jiqiaoxianshudehaizaitiaoyuedeyichaneibiaoyangezhonggeyangdedongzuo,rupitui、wanyao、taohuahuan、wushanzi、shuatengquandeng,dongzuojihuanyouzhi,qingyingyoumei。dangqiuqianhewantiaoban,chongfenxianshichulechaoxianzunvxingdejiaojianheqingrou。jushuo,qiuqianhetiaobanqiyuanyuneigebeirujiadaodeshufudeshidai,shenjujianchu、buyichumendeguniangxifumenjiedangqiuqianhewantiaobanshideyitiaopiejianyuanziweiqiangwaideshijie。

chaoxianzuzaizhangqideshengchan、shenghuoshijianzhong,chuangzaochuanchenglexuduominjiankouchengwenhuaheyishu,zhuyaoyouminyao、chuanshuoheminjiangushideng。

chaoxianzuminyaoneirongguangfan,younongminzaizhangqilaodongshenghuozhongchuangzaode“nongyao”,youcongwusuzhongfazhanerchengde“shenge”,yeyoufengjianshehuimoqichengshishuminchuangzao、houlaiyouchuanbodaonongminzhongerchengweiminzhonggeyaode“zage”,haiyou20shijichuyoujinbuxueshenghezhishifenzichuangzao、bingzaikoutouliuchuanzhongdingxingde“xinminyao”deng。

《alilang》shizaichaoxianzuzhongliuchuanzuiguangde、qudiaoyoumeidechuantongminyaozhiyi。juchuan,“alilang”yicishiyou“wonanli”、“wolilang"dengyisiyanbianerlai。《alilang》zailiuchuanzhong,yingedigezhedeqizhi、shihao、xiguanchayi,xingchengbutongbianti,zhujianhuijuweipangdadegeyaoqun。

时时彩平台注册《daolaji》shiyewailaodonghuoxiqingziyushiziyouyanchangdeaiqinggeyaozhiyi,changchangbanzhiyiqingsongyukuaidewudaodongzuo。zheishougeyaojiechaoxianzuzuixihuanchideshancaijiegengweiti,shufaleqingmeiduiyinfengjianlijiaopohaiersideqinglangdeaimuzhiqing。

chaoxianzuminjiangushifanyingshehuishenghuodegegefangmian,neirongguangfan,zhongleifanduo,guinaqilai,dazhikeyifenchuhuanxianggushi、dongwugushi、shenghuogushi、jizhirenwugushi、yuyan、xiaohuadengjilei,qizhongliuchuanguangfandeyouru《tuzihewugui》、《hongsongyurencan》、《mutonghexiannv》、《qingwasanxiongdi》、《chunxianghelidaoling》、《jinxiandagushi》deng。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochenglihou,chaoxianzuminjianwenxuegongzuozhezaidongbeichaoxianzujuzhudiqusoujizhenglilewuqianduopianminjiangushi,jiejichubanle《yanbianminjianwenxuezuopinji》(chaoxianwen)、《chaoxianzuminjiangushixuan》(hanwen)deng20duobu。qizhong,youzhengjiyunsoujizhenglide《nianqingdedalishi》、《liuxiongdi》、《bairihong》dengbeixuanjiyu《zhongguoshaoshuminzuwenxuezuopinxuan》。1982nianshanghaiwenyichubanshefanyichuban《chaoxianzuminjiangushixuan》,diyicixiangqitaminzudeduzhexitongjieshaolechaoxianzuminjiangushi。1983nianshanghaiwenyichubanshechubande《jindeshungushiji》(peiyongzhenzhenglifanyi),shiwoguoshoucichubandeminjiangushijiabenrenzhuanji。

时时彩平台注册chaoxianzuwudaojuyouzijixianmingdeminzutese,zhuyaobaokuononglewu、zhangguwu、shanziwu、xiangmaowu、dingshuiwu、daowudeng。qizhong,nonglewushichaoxianzuzhongguangweiliuchuandeminjianwudaozhiyi,younongleyouxiyanbianerlai,biaoyanyidajileqiluoguweixiandao,lingxianzheweiyidatongluozhe,wudaodekaishi、zhongjiandebianhuanjijiewei,junyoudaluozhezhihui。biaoyanshi,bixuyouyiweidaqideren,qishangyaoxieshang“nongzhetianxiazhidabenye”bagedazi,zhanzaidaluozhezhiqian,jinqingwudong,manhuaihaoqing。ciwai,zhangguwuyeshichaoxianzudaibiaoxingdewudaozhiyi,yiduteerdianyapiaoyidewuzierchimingzhongwai。zhangguwuyirouruandekangshou、shenjian、quequebudengdongzuoweizhu,yijiankuazhanggu,youshouchigubian,biantiaobianqiaodexingshibiaoyan,shen、gu、shenrongweiyiti,gaoduxiediaohetongyi,youduwu、shuangrenwuhequnwudengduozhong。

chaoxianzuchuantongleqiyoujiayeqin、tongxiao、xiqindeng。jiayeqinweichaoxianzuchuantongxianleqizhishou,shiminzusecaihennongdedanbaleqi,xingzhuangjinsiyuhanzuminleqiguzheng,yanzoushiyiduanzhedi、yiduanfangyutuishang,youshoudan,zuoshounong,biaoyanzitaiwenyabiezhi。tongxiaoshichaoxianzuminzuyinlezhongyizhongzhongyaodechuizouleqi,ziqidanshengyilaijiubeishouchaoxianzurenmindeqinglai,qiyinseshifenyoumei,shizhuguanleqizhongdezhongyinleqi。xiqinshichaoxianzurenminxihuanshiyongdeyizhonggongxianleqi,xiangchuanshiwoguosongdaidongbeiyidaidexibuzusuochuangzao,guerdeming。

lishishangchaoxianzuxinyangduozhongzongjiao,jiyouyuanshidewanwuyoulinglundeduoshenxinyang,youyoufojiao、jidujiaodengshijiexingzongjiaoxinyang,yeyoujindaichanshengdeminzuzongjiaoxinyang,rutiandaojiao、shitianjiao、jiyujiao、qinglinjiao、yuanzongjiao、tanjunjiao、dazongjiaodeng。ciwai,yeyourenxinyangfojiao、rujiaodeng。xinzhongguojianlihou,zheixiezongjiaoxinyangzaichaoxianzushehuizhongzhujianxiaoshi。gaigekaifanghou,suizhezongjiaoxinyangziyouzhengcedezhongxinluoshi,chaoxianzuzongjiaoxinyangzhongjidujiaodeyingxiangzhujiankuoda,qixintuyemingxianzengduo。muqian,chaoxianzudezongjiaoxinyangzhuyaoyijidujiao、tianzhujiaoweizhu,youqishijidujiaofazhansudujiaokuai。

发展现状:

1945niankangrizhanzhengshenglihou,dongbeichaoxianzudiquxianhoudedaojiefang。1949nian,chaoxianzurenminhequanguogezurenminyiqi,yinglailexinzhongguodechengli。xinzhongguochengli50duonianlai,chaoxianzurenminzaizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoxia,jijijianlizizhidifang,nulikaizhangongnongyeshengchan,dalifazhangexiangshehuishiye,zaizhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadenggefangmiandoufashengleshenkedebianhua,qudelejudadechengji。

时时彩平台注册zhonghuarenmingongheguochengliyihou,1952nianzaizhongguochaoxianzuzuidadejujudiyanbiandiquchenglileyanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhou,chaoxianzuchengweizizhidifangdezhutiminzu,xiangyouledangjiazuozhudequanli。1958nian,haijianlilewoguoweiyidechaoxianzuzizhixian——zhangbaichaoxianzuzizhixian。ciwai,zaisanzajudiquzexianhoujianlile40duogeminzuxiang。

gejidangzuzhiyiguanzhongshidalipeiyangminzuganbudegongzuo。zaozaikangrizhanzhenghejiefangzhanzhengshiqi,dapichaoxianzudeyouxiuernvzaidouzhengzhongduanlianchengzhangweijuyouyouyidingsixiangshuipinghegongzuonenglidegemingzhanshi,xinzhongguojianlihouxuduorenyijingchengweigejidangzhengzhongdelingdaogugan。liru,yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouchenglidangshi,chaoxianzuganbu6090ren,zhanquanzhouganbuzongshude74%,gaoyuchaoxianzurenkousuozhanbilide12gebaifendian;zaizhengfu14gechu、ju、weizhong,11gebumendezhongyaofuzerenyouchaoxianzudanren。

jingjishang,chaoxianzuzuoweinongyeminzu,shanzhangshuidaogengzhong,tamenshidongbeidiqushuidaonongyedexianquzhe。1945nianyihoudongbeijiefangqujinxingtudigaigeshi,kunraozhechaoxianzunongmindeguojiwentijibendedaojiejue,chaoxianzunongminfendeletudi,renminzhengfufafangletudizhizhao,tudisuoyouquanshuyuchaoxianzunongminziji。tudiwentidejiejue,duichaoxianzunongminjuyouteshudeyiyi,tamenbuzaishimeiyougenjideliumin,tamenchengweitudidezhenzhengzhuren。

xinzhongguochenglihou,chaoxianzunongminjijixiangyingzhongguogongchandanghaozhao,zouzainongyehuzhuhezuozhiqianlie。zaichaoxianzudiqu,1946nianyijingchuxianyipijinxinghuzhushengchanhuangongzu、linshihuzhuzuhejijiexinghuzhuzu,dao1953nian—1954nianjianchaoxianzunongcunjibenshangdouzuzhilehuzhuzu。tongshi,1951nianzhonggongzhongyangfabu《guanyuzaidifangshixingnongyeshengchanhuzhuhezuohuadejueyi(caoan)》bujiu,heilongjiangshengdesanjiangpingyuandiquchuxianleyou36huzuchengdequanguodiyigejitinongzhuang——huachuanxianxinghuojitinongzhuang,chengweiquanguonongyehezuohuadebangyang。1951nian3yue,zhonggongyanbiandiweiyiyanjixian(jinlongjingxian)dongshengyongxiangyongchengcundequanguolaodongmofanjinshilonghuzhuzuweishidian,chuangbanleyanbiandiqudiyigechujinongyeshengchanhezuoshe——limingchujihezuoshe,chengweidongbeidiqunongcunhuzhuhezuodeqizhi。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochenglihou,chaoxianzudejiuyeyuzhiyejiegouyefashenglehendabianhua。1982nian,chaoxianzuzaiyerenkouzhanzongrenkoude50%yishang,chaoguolequanguoheshaoshuminzupingjunshuiping。zaiyerenkouzhong,congshinaolilaodongderenkouzhan15.4%,yuangaoyuquanguopingjun7.9%、hanzuwei8.1%heshaoshuminzupingjun0.2%deshuiping。qizhong,chaoxianzugeleizhuanyejishurenyuanzhanzaiyerenkoude10.2%,biquanguopingjun、hanzu、shaoshuminzupingjungaochu101%、98%he155%。danrenguojiajiguan、dangqunzuzhi、qishiyedanweifuzerendechaoxianzurenkouzhanzaiyerenkoude3%,erquanguopingjunwei1.57%、hanzuwei1.59%、shaoshuminzupingjunwei1.14%。

时时彩平台注册jiaoyufangmian,chaoxianzujuyouzunzhongzhishi、zhongshijiaoyudehaochuantong。zaozaixinzhongguochengliqianxi,zaiyanjichuangbanlezhongguodiyigezonghexingminzudaxue——yanbiandaxue,1958nianzailongjingyouchuangbanlezhongguodiyisuonongmindaxue——limingnongmindaxue。zaizhongguogongchandangherenminzhengfudeguanxinzhichixia,chaoxianzuminzujiaoyufazhanxunsu,1952nianchaoxianzudiqupujilexiaoxuejiaoyu,1958nianjibenpujilezhongxuejiaoyu。chaoxianzuxuexiaozhongshikaizhanminzuyuyanjiaoxueheshuangyujiaoxue,qudelianghaoxiaoguo。chaoxianzujieshouxiaoxueyishangjiaoyudebilv、meiwanrenzhongjieshoudaxuejiaoyudeshuipingdengfangmian,jungaoyuquanguopingjunshu。liru,congmeiwanrenzhongjieshoudaxuejiaoyudeqingkuangkan,ju2000niandiwuciquanguorenkoupuchatongji,quanguopingjunshuwei122ming,hanzuwei126ming,erchaoxianzuwei381ming;congmeiwanrenzhongshuoshi、boshiyongyoushukan,quanguopingjunwei8ming,hanzuwei8ming,erchaoxianzuwei17ming。

时时彩平台注册gaigekaifangyilai,chaoxianzujingjishehuidedaogengjiaxunsudifazhan。gaigekaifangyiqian,chaoxianzuzuoweinongyeminzu,qirenkoufenbubijiaojizhongyuminzujujucunzhuang。tamencongshichuantongdeshuidaoshengchan,guozhebijiaoandingdetianyuanshenghuo,baochilejiaononghoudeminzutedian。gaigekaifangyihou,suizhechengxiangtizhigaigedeshenhuaheduiwaishishicaipingtaizhucedekuoda,chaoxianzushehui、jingji、wenhuadenggefangmiandedaozhongdafazhanhebianhua。youqishi,suizheshichangjingjiyishidezengqiang,chaoxianzugaibianleguoqudanyideshuidaogengzuo,minzujingjirijianduoyuanhua,qirenkoucongxiangcunliuruchengzhen,youxiaochengzhenliurudazhongchengshi,youdongbeijujudiquliuxiangguanneifadadiqu,jinerliuxiangguowai,qijingjifazhanchengjiulingrenzhumu。

nongyejingyingtizhidedaozhongdagaibian。chaoxianzucengshinongyeminzu,tamenshanzhangshuidaogengzuo。zhonghuarenmingongheguochenglihou,chaoxianzunongminzaihuzhuzu、hezuoshe、jirenmingongshedeqizhixiazuzhiqilai,shixingjitishengchan,gaopingjunfenpei,guozhexiangduipingjingerwendingdetianyuanshenghuo。zheizhongtizhisuiranyizhileliangjifenhua,yidingchengdushangjiefangleshengchanli,danshiyouyugaopingjunfenpeihe“daguofan”,yanzhongyingxianglenongmindeshengchanjijixing,laodongxiaolvdixia。gaigekaifangyilai,nongcunpubianshishinongyeshengchangerenlianchanchengbaozhi,jidadidiaodonglenongmindeshengchanjijixing,laodongxiaolvmingxiantigao。liruguoqujitishengchanshichayang、shougejunxuershiduotian,ershishigerenchengbaozhiyihou,budaoyigexingqijiunengwancheng。ciwai,youyunongminzhongtianyuzijideshouyimiqiexiangguan,tamengengjiazhuzhongjinggengxizuo,zaigaochan、wenchanfangmianxiagongfu。rujinchaoxianzudiqudedabufenshuitianmuchanjunchaoguo1,000jin,shangchanzai15,000jinyishang。

nongyejingyingzhubuzouxiangjiyuehua。nongcunjiatinglianchanchengbaozerenzhifuyulenongmindeshengchanzizhujingyingquan,zheidiaodonglenongmindeshengchanjijixing,tigaolenongyelaodongshengchanlv,jiefangledaliangdenongyelaodongli。congtudizhongbaituochulaidechaoxianzunongmin,fenfenzouchujiamen,jinruchengshicongshidier、disanchanye,xianqilechaoxianzurenkouliudongdachao。muqian,chaoxianzunongcunlaodonglizhong,litulixiangdaoguoneidazhongchengshijingshang、dagonghuoquguowaicongshilaowudedayueyousanfenzhiyiyishang。youdenongcunshenzhiyibanyishangdelaodonglilitulixianglingmouchulu,erzhongdidelaodonglibujizonglaodonglideyiban,heilongjiangshenghailinshichaoxianzunongcunlaodonglizhong,20shiji90niandaimoyixingchenglesanfenzhiyilaodonglizaijiazhongtian,sanfenzhiyilaodonglidaodazhongchengshijingshangwugong,sanfenzhiyilaodongliquguowaicongshigezhonglaowudegeju。zheizhongjumianbujindadajianqinglenongcundejiuyeyali,erqiecushinongyejingyingzhujianzouxiangguimohuahejiyuehua。

chanyejiegouyousuodiaozheng。guoqu,chaoxianzuzuoweinongyeminzu,80%yishangdoucongshinongyeshengchan,qiejingyingdanyidezhongzhiye,zheizhongjumianyizhichixuzhishangshiji80niandai。suizhegaigekaifangyilainongcunjingjitizhigaigedetuijin,chaoxianzunongminyicongdanchundezhongzhiyezhongbaituochulai,guangkaishengchanmenlu,congshiduozhongjingying。yushi,guoqudiyichanyezhanjueduiyoushidejumianzhujiandedaogaibian,dier、disanchanyebizhongriqushangsheng,minzujingjijiegoudedaodiaozheng,bingzhujianxianghelifangxiangfazhan。liru,jilinshengyanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhoudeguoneishengchanzongzhizhong,diyi、dier、disanchanyesuozhanbizhongfenbieyou1980niande23.6%、51.2%、25.2%gaibianwei2004niande15.4%、45.1%、39.5%。ciwai,xiangcunjingjizhongdeshourugouchengyaosuyefashengbianhua,nonglinmuyushouruzainongcunjingjizongshouruzhongdesuozhanbizhongxiajiang,erfeinongyeshourubizhongzhujianshangsheng。

时时彩平台注册shenghuogengshangyicenglou。nong、gong、shangjianbei,laodonglicongnongyeshengchanzhongfenlichuqucongshiduozhongjingyingjiguowailaowu,dadagaibianlechaoxianzunongcunguoquzhikaodanyishuidaoshengchanyingshengdejumian。rujinnongyeshouruzhishichaoxianzunongminzhenggeshourudeyibufen,gongshangyehechuguolaowudengshouruxiangdangkeguan。2006nian,yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhoupaichulaowurenyuan1.7wanrenci,qizhongdangnianwaipailaowurenyuan5029renci,quannianyinsishewaishouruda10.5yimeiyuan;2006nian,yanbianchengzhenjuminjiatingrenjunkezhipeishouruda9438yuan,nongcunjuminjiatingrenjunchunshouruda2994yuan,juminchuxucunkuanyue369.8yiyuan。suizhechaoxianzunongminshourudezengduo,qishenghuozhiliangyoulemingxiantigao。bujinyi、shi、zhu、xingdabianyang,erqiechongmanxiandaiqixidejiayongdianqi、dianhuadengyejinrulenongminjiating,bingdedaolejibenpuji。

guannianyishibianhuashenke。gaigekaifangdapoleguoquchaoxianzunongcundefengbihechenji,cushiguangdadechaoxianzuqunzhongcongchuantongdexiaonongjingjishufuzhongjiefangchulai。chaoxianzuqunzhongbuzaimanzuguoqude“wenbaoxing”tianyuanshenghuo,fenfenyongrushangpinjingjidachaozhizhong,qirenkouliudongbiandefeichanghuoyue。renkouliudongbujinkuodachaoxianzufenbulingyuhejingjiduoyuanxing,erqieweichaoxianzugengxinguannian,shulixiandaiyishitigonglekeneng。chaoxianzurenkoudaliangcongnongcunzouruchengzhen,kaipishichang,canyujingzheng,zhujianxidejiayushichangdebenling,jiasulechengshiwenmingdexuntao,qiguanniandedaohendadegengxin。tebieshichaoxianzuzhuazhuzhonghanjingjiwenhuashishicaipingtaizhuceriyipinfanhekuodadejiyu,liyongqizuyuan、renyuan、yuyandengyoushi,daliangditourudaoshewaijingjilingyu,tamenyifangmianzaiguoneidaohanguoduzi、heziqiyedagonghuozaimaoyi、lvyoudengxingyezhongdanrenhanfangdailirenhuozhijieyuhanguojinxingjingyinghuodong。lingyifangmian,zhijiezouchuguomen,daoguowaidagonghuojingshang。chaoxianzutongguozheixiejingyinghuodong,bujinhuodeleyidingde“zibenyuanshijilei”,weikuodazaishengchanchuangzaotiaojian,erqiezaiyuzibenzhuyishichangtizhidejiechuzhong,xuexiletamenbijiaoxianjindejingyingguanli,kaikuoleyanjie,chuantongbaoshouguanniandedaogaibian,xiandaishichangyishidaweijiaqiang,jiasuleminzuzishendexiandaihuajincheng。

gaigekaifangyilai,chaoxianzuzuidadejujuqu——yanbianchaoxianzuzizhizhouzaidangzhongyang、guowuyuanhejilinshengwei、shengzhengfudezhengquelingdaoxia,qijingjiheshehuishiyeyequdelejudachengjiu,zonghejingjishilixianzhuzengqiang。

zaizhengcefangmian,yanbianzuoweiminzuzizhidiquyizhixiangshouzhedangheguojiaminzuquyuzizhizhengcedeguanhuai;zuoweiqianfadadebianjiangdiqu,zai2001nianyanbianbeiguowuyuanpizhunweidongbeiweiyixiangshouxibukaifazhengcedediqu;suizheguojiazhenxingdongbeilaogongyejidizhanlvedeshishi,yanbianyouxiangshoudaodongbeilaogongyejidizhenxingzhengce。muqian,yanbianshiguoneitongshixiangshouminzuquyuzizhi、xibudakaifahezhenxingdongbeilaogongyejididengsanda“guozihao”youhuizhengcedeweiyidiqu,zhengceyoushijiweituchu。

zaijichusheshishishicaipingtaizhucefangmian,yanbiandiquyixingchenggonglu、tielu、hangkongbingxing、luhaixianglian、litijiaotongyunshuwangluo。tielukezhidajilin、zhangchun、shenyang、dalian、beijing、haerbinjichaoxian、eluosi。dongbiandaotieluhelongzhierdaobaiheduanjijiangkaigong;haishangkaitongletongguochaoxianluojin、qingjinheeluosiboxiete、zhalubinuodaoribenqiutian、hanguoshucaodehangxian;yanjijichangdadao4cjibiaozhun,yichengguojikonggang,kaitonglezhibeijing、shanghai、tianjin、zhangchun、haerbin、mudanjiang、shenyang、dalian、qingdao、yantai、shenzhen、guangzhouyijihanguohancheng、eluosihaicanweidengzhongduoguoneiwaihangxian;yanbianyijinruquanguozidonghuatongxunwang,xianshihexiangzhenyipujichengkongdianhua,dianhuapujilvda12bu/bairen,yanjiyianzhuangguojiweixingdiqiuzhantongxunjieshousheshi;chengshishishicaipingtaizhucejiakuai,nongcunxiangchengshihuafangxiangfazhan,chengshixiangguojihua、xiandaihuafangxiangmaijin,rujinyanbiandechengshihuashuipingmingxiangaoyuquanguo、quanshengdepingjunshuiping。

时时彩平台注册yanbiandeduiwaikaifangyequdelingrenzhumudechengjiu。yanbiandichudongbeiyaquyude“jinsanjiao”didai,youzhedetianduhoudediyuanyoushiherenyuanyoushi,zheilidechaoxianzuyuchaoxian、hanguo、eluosi、riben、meiguo、jianada、aodaliya、xianggang、aomendengguojiahediqudechaoxianzurenyouzhemiqieguanxi。rujin,zizhizhouneiyouyigeguojiajikaifaqu,sigeshengjikaifaqu,xingchengleyihunchunweilongtou,yiyanjiweiyituodequanfangweikaifanggeju。guojiajihunchunbianjingjingjijishuhezuoquyuzhongehushimaoyiqu、guojiajihunchunchukoujiagongquxingcheng“sanquheyi”geju,zaiguoneiduyiwuer。zheixieweiyinjinzijin,yinjinjishu,yinjinrencai,fazhanwaixiangxingjingjichuangzaolejihaodetiaojian。dao2006nian,yanbianzizhizhouyijianchengduiwaikaifangkouan11ge,quannianwaimaojinchukouzongeda11.1yimeiyuan,zaitumenjiangdiquguojihezuokaifazhongchuyulingpaodiwei。

shehuishiyefazhanfangmian,yanbianyixingchenglecongyouerjiaoyudaogaodengjiaoyudewanzhengtixi,yiwujiaoyupujichengduheshouguogaodengjiaoyuderenshubilizaiquanguoshaoshuminzudiquzhongshizhongminglieqianmao。guangbodianshi、xinwenchuban、yiliaoweishengdengshiyedouqudelezhangzujinbu,yizhizouzai30geshaoshuminzuzizhizhoudeqianlie。

jinruxinshijidechaoxianzurenmin,muyuzaidangheguojiaminzuzhengcedezhaoyaoxia,yuquanguogezurenminyiqi,gongtongtuanjiefendou,gongtongfanrongfazhan,zhiliyubaweidadezuguoshishicaipingtaizhucedegengjiameihao。

                                                                                (摘自《民族问题五种丛书》之《中国少数民族》卷)

 
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