时时彩平台注册

 
 

鄂伦春族

ssmz_elc

 

民族概况:

elunchunzushishijuwoguodongbeibudiquderenkouzuishaodeminzuzhiyi,xinzhongguochenglichuqirenkouzhiyouyiqianyuren,jinjishinianrenkouzengzhangjiaokuai,ju2000niandiwuciquanguorenkoupuchatongji,elunchunzurenkouwei8196ren。elunchunyushuaertaiyuximan—tonggusiyuzutonggusiyuzhi,meiyouwenzi,xianzaizhuyaoshiyonghanyuhanwen。

时时彩平台注册elunchunzuzhuyaofenbuzaineimengguzizhiquhulunbeiermengelunchunzizhiqi、butehaqi、molidawadawoerzuzizhiqiheheilongjiangshengbeibudehuma、xunke、aihui、jiayindengxian。heilongjiangshengyouelunchunzu3871ren,zhanelunchunzuzongrenkoude47%;neimengguzizhiquyou3573ren,zhan44%。

elunchunzushidaishenghuodedaxiaoxinganlingweiyuheilongjiangshengbeibuheneimengguzizhiqudedongbeibu。xiweidaxinganling,beiweiyilehulishan,dongweixiaoxinganling。daxinganlingpingjunkuanyue200~300gongli,haiba1000~1400mizuoyou,mianjiwei8.6wanduopingfanggongli,xilushantihunyuan,chenggaoyuanzhuang,zhujianguodudaohulunbeiergaoyuan,dongludouqiao,jijuguodudaosongnenpingyuan,zheilideheliutuanji,chuoerhe、genihe、nuominhe、bilahe、kuilehe、ganhe、duobukuerhe、neidoulihe、nanwenghe,youxixiangdongnanliuhuinenjiang。beibushiyilehulishan,panguhe、humahecongshanbeiliuchuhuiruheilongjiang。kuankuodechongjipendibianbuyuxiaguzhijian,tudifeiwo,yinongyimu。xiaoxinganlingshanshipinghuan,haiba500~1000mi,mianjiyue7.8wanpingfanggongli,300~500migaodeqiulinghehongjitaidibianbuqijian,dongludexunhe、zhanhe、kuerbinhe、jiayinheliuhuiheilongjiang。

daxiaoxinganlingdiqushuhanwendaidaluxingqihou。daxinganlingdongjimanzhangerkuhan,zuidiwendukedalingxia40~50℃,wushuangqijin100tianzuoyou。xiaoxinganlingpingjunqiwenbidaxinganlinggao10℃zuoyou,wushuangqi110tianzuoyou。daxiaoxinganlingquannianpingjunjiangshuiliangyuewei700haomi,yi7、8yuezuiduo。quanqujiangxueqiyueyou7—8geyue,jixueqizai200—220tian,danjiangxuerishuzhiyou46—87tian。jiangxuejizhongyu11yuefenhedierniande2、3yuefen,zuidajixueshendu30—50limi。

daxiaoxinganlingziyuanfengfu,fugaizheguangkuodeyuanshisenlin,suyoulinhaizhicheng。zhenyelinyouxinganluoyesong、zhangzisong、hongsong、yulinsong、shansong、lengsong、huanghuasong;kuoyelinyoubaihua、heihua、zuoshu、baiyang、yushudeng。guanmuheqiaomubianjishanling。daxiaoxinganlingjifuyecai、yeguohekuaigenyaocaileizhiwuziyuan。yecaiyoushanqincai、shanjiucai、hancong、shancong、liuhaoya、huanghuacai、juecaideng;yeguoyoushanputao、shanli、shandingzi、choulizi、hongdou、doushi、yueju、caomei、zhenzi、songzi、shanhetaodeng;keshijunleiyouheimuer、houtou、mogudeng;yaocaiyourencan、huangqi、wuweizi、zhimu、ciwujiadeng。zheilihaiqixizhe50duozhongzhenqinyishou。shouleiyoumalu、tuolu(andaan)、paozi、yezhu、heixiong、zongxiong、dongbeihu、sheli、lang、huli、hezi、huanzi、shuita、zhangzi、huangyou、huishu、yetudeng;feiqinyoushuji(yeji)、zhenji(feilong)、tiane、dayan、yeya、he、yaoying、maotouyingjigeleishanquedeng。

zonghengjiaocuo、miruzhuwangdejianghehuboshengchangezhongyulei,baokuozhongdashubai、shuqianjindehuangyu、xunyu,yijidamahayu(guiyu)、liyu、baiyu、jiyu、zheluoyu、yaluoyu、xilinyu、huachiyu、aohuayu(guiyu)、gouyu、nianyu、caogenyu、liugenyudeng。

liaokuomeilidetudihefengfudeziyuanweielunchunzudefazhantigongleguangkuodekongjianhedongli。

历史沿革:

时时彩平台注册elunchunshiyigeyouzheyoujiulishideminzu。guanyuqizuyuan,zhuyaoyouliangzhongshuofa,yishishiweishuo,ershisushenshuo。muqianxuejieduoqingxiangyuqianzhe。shiqishijizhongyeyiqian,elunchunrenfenbuyubeijiaerhuyidong、heilongjiangyibei,yijingqilijiangweizhongxindeguangdadiqu。lishishangzheilizhuyaoshiboshiweirenheshenmodashiweirendehuodongquyu,yinci,suichaoshideboshiwei、shenmodashiweiyingshielunchunzuxianmindezhuyaolaiyuan,beishiweiyiyoukenengcanyulezutixingchengguocheng。tangchaoshishiweifazhanwei20yubu,tangsheshiweidoudufujiayiguanxia。juwenxianjizai,qizhongdepowoheluozubufenbuyujinheilongjiangyibei、waixinganlingyinan。liaochaodeshiweibuzaijinnenjiangshangyouyibeijiwaixinganlingyinan,heilongjiangzhong、shangyoudiqu。liaosheshiweiguowangfu,shengzongshiyousheshiweijiedushi,lixibeiluzhaotaosi,duizheiyidaideshiweirendengjinxingguanxia。jinchaodehuoluhuotuanmoukeguanxiawaixinganlingyinandiqu。yuanchaoshi,elunchunrenbeichengwei“linmuzhongbaixing”he“beishanyeren”,fenbujiweiguangkuo,zailiaoyangxingshengdeguanxiazhizhong。mingchaoshiheilongjiangyibeiyou“chengluyichuru”de“beishanyeren”,jiushizhiyoulieyubeijiaerhuyidong、heilongjiangyibeide“shilubu”,yejiushielunchunren。mingchaoyuyongleqinian(1409nian),shezhilenuergandousi,“beishanyeren”zaiqiguanxiafanwei,minghongzhinianjianshiguiliaodongdousiguanxia。qingchuwenxiancengbaelunchunrenchengwei“shuzhongren”。qingchongdewunian(1640nian),“eertun”cengzuoweielunchunzudezuchengchuxianyuwenxianzhong。tongnian,jiang“suolunbu”fenbianweibaniulu(zuoling),elunchunrenweisuolunbuzhongdeyibufen。kangxibanian(1669nian),zaininggutajiangjunzhixiashebuteha(dashengbuluo)baqi,guanlifenbuzaiheilongjiangshang、zhongyoudeelunchun、ewenke、dawoerdengzu。

kangxiershiernian(1683nian),congyuanlaitongxiajilin、heilongjiangdeninggutajiangjunxichuheilongjiangjiangjun。heilongjiangjiangjunzhixiashebacheng,fenshefudoutong、zongguandengguanyuanguanxia。duiyuelunchunzudeguanli,jiangqifenwei“molingaelunchun”(qimadeelunchunren)he“yafahanelunchun”(buxingdeelunchunren)liangbufen。beibianrubuteha(dasheng)baqi“chongguanbingzhe”,chengzuo“molingaelunchun”,meiyoubianrubutehabaqi,“gelieshansoujingongnadiaoyizhe”,chengzuo“yafahanelunchun”。houzhefenshewulubazuo,meizuosheelunchunzuzuolingyiren,meinianpaimingwei“anda”derendaodangdiquzhengshoudiaopi。

时时彩平台注册shiqishijizhongyeyihou,youyushaediguozhuyizhedeqinlvejielve,poshiheilongjiangyibeijingqilijiangliangandeelunchunzunanqiandaoda、xiaoxinganlingdiqu。

kangxiershiernian(1683nian)yihou,wenxianzhongduocichuxian“eluochun”、“eluochun”、“elunchun”dengbutongxiefa。congkangxiershijiunian(1690nian)shiyueshi,“elunchun”caizuoweitongyidezuchenggudingxialai。“elunchun”shiminzuzicheng,ji“shiyongxunluderenmen”。elunchunzunanqianyiqian,yuanlaijuzhuzaiheilongjiangshangyoudeaiwenjiren(elunchunheewenkeren)yimuyangxunluweizhu,jianshiyuliehecaiji。lingwai,“elun”defayinyuxunludefayin(oron)xiangtong,(cho)shibiaoshirendefujiachengfen,liangzheheqilaiwei(oroncho),ji“elunchun”,hanyujiushi“daluren”zhiyi。

genjujuzhuquyudebutong,elunchunrenneibuhaiyoubutongdemingcheng。rujuzhuyuhumaheliuyudeelunchunrenzichengkumaerqian;juzhuzaixunkexian、jiayinxianhebiandeelunchunrenzichengbilaqian;juzhuzaiganheliuyudeelunchunrenzichengganqian;juzhuzaituoheliuyudeelunchunrenzichengtuoqiandeng。biru,kumaerqiande“kumaer”biaoshididian,“qian”biaoshirendefujiachengfen,biaoshimoudirenzhiyi。

时时彩平台注册elunchunshiyigereaihepingdeminzu,tongshiyoushiyigejijufankangjingshen、xiaoyongshanzhandeminzu。elunchunzuzaifankangwaidiqinlve、weihuguojiatongyihefanfenliedouzhengzhongzuochulezhongyaogongxian。

17shijizhongye,shaeqinfanwoguoheilongjiangliuyu。kangxisinian(1665nian),shaeqinzhanleheilongjiangshangyoubeiandeyakesacheng,shaoshaqianglvedangdijumin。kangxiershisinian(1685nian),zaiqingjundiercishoufuyakesachengdezhanyizhong,you565mingelunchunzushibingcanzhan,duiyakesazhizhandeshenglizuochulegongxian。yongzhengshinian(1732nian),qingzhengfuchoudiaoelunchunzubing259ming,liantongdawoerdengzubinggong3000renbianweibaqi,zaihulunbeierdejilamataihekoushechengzhufang,xunluobianjing,baoweibianjiang。guangxuershiliunian(1900nian),shaeruqin,jiangwojiangdong64tungezurenminganzhijiangbianshesha。kumaerluxielingshouliandailingelunchunzumaduiguanbing500rentongjileruqinzhe。

时时彩平台注册kangximonianzhiqianlongnianjian,zhungaerguizugaerdan、cewangalabutanheamuersanadengrenzaishaedecedongxiaxianhoufadongwuzhuangpanluan。zaipingdingzhungaerfenlieshilidezhanzhengzhong,elunchunzuguanbingzuochulegongxian。qianjianianjian“molinga”(qima)elunchunzuamuleta,shiyiweiweihuguojiatongyihedulideyingxiongrenwu,tayingyongshanzhan,lvjianqigong。zaishoufutaiwanhekangjikuoerkaqinlvejundezhanzhengzhongliyoudagong,guanzhizongguan,jiafudoutongxian,chengweilishishangzhiweizuigaodeelunchunzujunshizhihuiguan。

时时彩平台注册elunchunzuduiyuguoneitongzhizhedeyapohejianshangdeqiyayejinxinglewanqiangdedikang。zaimeiniande“chulehan”jihuishang,elunchunrenchulegongnadiaopi,dedaoyixiebupi、yinliangdeshangciwai,yuxiadediaopiheximaopizhangkeyichushou,huanqushengchanshenghuoyongpin。duiyusanchushanyede“yafahan(tubu)elunchun”,butehazongguanyamenshe5mingguanyuanfenbieguanli,3nianyihuan,chengzuo“anda”,meiniandouzaigudingdedidianxiangelunchunrenzhengdiaobingyushangci。houlai,“anda”sidaiwupinyuelunchunrenjiaohuan,shenzhiyufazhandawoer、hanzu“anda”yuelunchunzujinxingjibugongpingdejiaohuan,jinyumingqianganduo,“suobudiaopi,zheweiandazhurenyiweiwuyiqu,siyiqiling,buchinuchu”。guangxunianjian,kumaerluxiaoqixiaolieqintaijujigeluelunchunzu,fankang“anda”decanbaoboxueheyapo,yaoqiucaichebutehazongguanyamen。lieqintaidengrendefankangdouzhenghuodelechengxiao,daozhiqingtingchexiaobutehazongguanyamen,shexinganchengzongguanyamen。guanfang“anda”zhibeifeichu。sirenandahesishangchengjiquerdaizhi。elunchunrenyuandajinxingdeshiyizhongbaoganshidewuwujiaoyi。elunchunrenbasuohuoliepin,chuzijisuoyongbufenwai,qiyuquanbujiaojianda,youandatigongdanyao、liangshi、bupidengjibenshenghuo、shengchanyongpin。yinci,duiyuelunchunzulaishuo,bingbushicongjiaohuanzhonghuodelirun,erjinjinshiweileweichishengcunheshenghuodexunhuanhepingheng。jianshangduielunchunzupanboshenyuguansi“anda”,tamenbujinliyongguanjiudengbeilieshoufaqipianelunchunzu,erqieliyongelunchunrenshangpinyishibuqiangderuodian,shielunchunrenfanerqianxiajianshangzhaiwu,ranhouqiaozhalesuo,baqiqiangnv,zhongyubaofale1924niangangtonglingdaoxiadefanjianshangdouzheng。zairiweitongzhishiqi,jinzhielunchunzuchushouliepin,quanbujiaoji“manzhouchuchanpinzhushihuishe”,jinxiangelunchunrentigongyifenliangshi、bupihezidan,nanyiweichishengji,elunchunrenshentisuzhijijuxiajiang,gezhongjibingmanyan,renkoudaliangsiwang。

“jiuyiba”shibianbaofayihou,ribenqinlvezheweilezhenyaelunchunzurenmindefankang,qianghualetongzhi。1938nian,ribenguandongjunzhidingle《zhidaogangyaofangan》,duielunchunzucaiquzanshiliyong、zuizhongxiaomiede“zhidaofangzhen”。elunchunzubingweiqufuyuribenqinlvezhedeyemantongzhi,kaizhanlezifadekangridouzheng,fenfenzhiyuanhecanjiakangrilianjun。zaikangrilianjunsan、liu、jiu、shiyilujunzhong,junyouelunchunzucanjia。qizhong,diliujunyueyou40duomingelunchunzuzhanshi。zaikanglianduiwuzhong,youxuduochuanqishideelunchunzuyingxiongrenwu。kangliandiliujundehuangmao(chuohao)zaishoulieguochengzhonglianjiuleyishouhaoqiangfa,shiweishenqiangshou。1936nian8yue,tayulingliangweizhanshizaitangwanghezujiwuliubaimingriweijun。tabaifabaizhong,jin1renjiujibidirensiwushige,dijunjingkongwanfen,zhizhi1938nianweiganjinfantangwanghe。lingyiweielunchunzukanglianzhanshiyuanbaofuzezhaoshangzhideanquangongzuo。1937niandong,zaizhaoshangzhilingdaodeyicizhanyizhong,tayirenjibirijunshushiren。kangrilieshilibaogelieheliguixiabushifuzi,tamendekangrishijichenlieyuhaerbinshidongbeilieshijinianguan。elunchunzuqunzhongjijiweikangrilianjundailu、songxin、yunsongliangshihewuzi、yanhukanglianzhanshi,bangzhukanglianzhenchadiqing、peihekangliangongdadirenjudian,bushaorenxianchulebaoguideshengming,weikangrizhanzhengdeshenglizuochulegongxian。

时时彩平台注册shiqishijizhongyeelunchunzunanqianzhiheilongjiangyinanhou,yangeyiyidefuxishizushehuiyibucunzai,danrengcunyouhenji。elunchunrendefuxishizucheng“mukun”,shizuzhang“mukunda”youminzhuxuanjuchansheng,tiaojianshibanshigongzheng、youweiwang、renpinhaohebeifenjiaogaoderenchongdang,shizuneideyiqieshiwuyou“mukunda”zhuchi。shizudahuishizuigaoquanlijigou。yousanzhongqingkuangkeyizhaokaishizudahui: yishixuanjushizuzhang;ershixuzupu、paibeifen;sanshiyudaozhongdaqingkuanghetufashijian。shizudahuihaihuiduiweifanxiguanfaderenjinxingchufa。

时时彩平台注册elunchunrennanqianyihou,qifuxijiatinggongshe“wulileng”yichuyuxiangyouliegongsheguodujieduan,juedaduoshu“wulileng”chuyudiyuxingdeyouliegongshejieduan。“wulileng”weitonggusiyu,yiwei“zisunmen”。“wulileng”youtongyifuxideruogandaizisundegegexiaojiatingzucheng,shielunchunzushehuidejibenjingjidanwei。“wulileng”neishengchanziliaogongyou,gongtonglaodong,liepinanhupingjunfenpei。“wulileng”deshoulingshi“tatanda”,youminzhuxuanjushengchan。“tatanda”shigongshedezuzhizhehelingdaozhe,“tatanda”meiyoutequan,tongqitachengyuanyiyanglaodong。

qingchao,youyutieqi、qiangzhi、mapideshiyong,shengchanlitigaojiaokuai,jiaohuancujinlefazhan,chuxianlesiyoucaichan。jiashangzhouweiqitaminzudeyingxiang,elunchunzushehuijingjifashengleshenkedebianhua。yifuyiqizhidegetixiaojiatingzhujiancongjiazugongshezhongfenlichulai,chengweishehuijingjidejibendanwei。“wulileng”yejiuzhujianyouxueyuanzuzhifazhanchengweidiyuanzuzhi。zheishi,meigexiaojiatingkeyiziyoujiaruhuotuichurenheyige“wulileng”。

时时彩平台注册jiazugongshedejieti,biaozhizheelunchunzuyixueyuanweiniudaideyuanshishehuifazhanjieduandejieshu。daojiefangshi,elunchunzuyijinruyidiyuanweiniudaidenongcungongshefazhanjieduan。“wulileng”cunsheyichengweielunchunzushehuidejibendanweiheshengchanzuzhi,danrengrancunzaiyoujiazugongshedeyiji。

guangxubanian(1882nian),elunchunrenbeiqiyaguozhong,yinqiqiangliefankang,heilongjiangjiangjunwenxuzouqingchexiaobutehazongguanyamen,jianlixinganchengzongguanyamenzhuanguanelunchunzu。guangxushinian(1884nian),xinganchengzongguanyamenjiancheng。xinganchengzongguanyamenshefudouxianzongguan1ming,fuzongguan10ming,qizhong,elunchunzufuzongguan8ming。xiashekumaerluyou3zuo;aliluyou1zuo;duobukuerluyou1zuo;tuoheluyou1zuo;bilaerluyou2zuo。guangxushijiunian,yinshixiaobuda,yiheilongjiangjiangjunyiketangadezouqing,caichelexinganchengzongguanyamen,ergaiyouheilongjiang、moergen、hulunbeiersanchengfudoutongguanxia,qizhong,heilongjiangchengfudoutongguanxiakumaerlu4qi8zuohebilaerlu2qi4zuo;moergenchengfudoutongguanxiaaliduobukuerlu1qi2zuo;hulunbeierchengfudoutongguanxiatuohelu1qi2zuo。fudoutonghexielingweimanzuren,zuolingjunweielunchunren。zuolingchudingqixiangxielingbaogaoqingkuangwai,yongyouzuoneidejunshi、xingzheng、sifa、zhiandengquanli,dulanzuoneielunchunzudeshengshayuduozhiquan。guangxusanshisinian(1908nian),sheyuanhunbingbeidaohehulunbeierbingbeidao,fenguankumaerlu、aliduobukuerluelunchunzu,bilaerluguixingdongdaoguanxia。

时时彩平台注册jinruminguohou,heilongjianggaishexingsheng,fenshexianzhi,danelunchunzudeguanlijigoumeiyouhebingdaoxianzhizhong,lu、qi、zuotongxianbingcun,bushouxianlingdao。weilejiaqiangbianfang,minguo12nian(1923nian),zaielunchunzuzhongshe“baoweituan”,minguo14nian(1925nian)gaiwei“shanlinyoujidui”。

junfatongzhishiqi,feichulebaqizuzhideneirong,silushiliuzuodejigoujibenshangmeiyoubiandong。guanxiaxitongshanglvezuogaibian,qizhongsanluhuaguiheilongjiangshengdubangongshuguanxia,yiluhuaguihailaermengguyamenguanxia。tongzhizheweilebianyujiaqiangduielunchunzudetongzhi,qiangzhishixingguo“qilieguinong”zhengce,shitamendingjuxialai,yibianyutongzhihechouzhuangding。haibaqingzhuangnianqiangbianwei“shanlinyoujidui”,houlaigaibianwei“baoweituan”zuoweitamenqushidegongju。danzaijinianzhihou,dabufenrenyouqinongguilie。jinyoushaoshushangcengguanyuanzaitongzhizhedegulihefuzhixia,guyongelunchun、han、man、dawoerdengzudegugong,daliangkaihuangzhongdi,shinongyeyouleyidingdefazhan。chuxianlejijiazhanyoubaiyushangtudidedadizhu。

1931nian“jiuyiba”shibianhou,ribenqinzhandongbei,jiangyuankumaerlu、bilaerlu、aliduobukuerlu、tuoheluzhiyuweiheilongjiangshengminzhengtingmengqikeguanxia,geluxielinggongshusuiweichexiao,danyichengleyoumingwushidejigou。1934nian,weimanzhouguojiangdongbeiheneimenghuafenwei14gesheng,weiheiheshengguanxiakumaerluhebilaerlu;weixingandongshengguanxiaaliduobukuerlu;weixinganbeishengguanxiatuohelu。tongnian7yuefeichubaqizhi,mingyishangrengbaoliulu、zuozhidu,danxielinghezuolingyiweikuilei,ribentewujiguanpaidaogedide“zhidaoguan”shijitongzhielunchunzu。zairiweitongzhishiqi,duielunchunzucaiquleminzugelizhengce,yuqitaminzuyoujiudelianxibeigeduan。

“anga”shielunchunren“wulileng”weidanweideshouliezuzhidebuchongxingshi。shizujitishoulieshenzhishizuzhijianlianheshoulieshizuigulaodeyizhongshouliezuzhi,youyushengchanlishifendixia,zheizhongshouliezuzhishibirancunzaiguode。eryi“wulileng”weidanweideshouliezuzhishielunchunrengulaodeshouliexingshi,zhizhixinzhongguojianliqianxirengranbaocunzheqicanliuxingshi。“anga”(aana)shiyoushurenzuchengdeyizhonglinshixingdeshouliezuzhi,duobanyouqinqi、pengyouzucheng。henxianran,zheiyangdeshengchanzuzhizhinengzaiyouliegongshejieduancunzai。“anga”zuchenghou,yaominzhutuixuanchuyiweifuyoushouliejingyanheweiwangdenianzhangzhewei“tatanda”。“tatan”shihuokengzhiyi,“tatanda”yuanlaizhidejiushihuoduideshouhuzhe,jijiazuzhang。suoyi“anga”shicongfuxijiatinggongshejitishoulieguodulaide。“tatanda”fuze“anga”deshengchanheliechanpindefenpei。haiyaoxuanyiwei“wujiuluda”binganpaiyirendang“tuaqin”。“wujiuluda”shi“tatanda”dezhushou,fuze“anga”derichangshenghuo。funvbusuilieshi,xuanyiweinianqingershouliejishuchaderendang“tuaqin”,fuzezuofan、guanlimapidengzawu,dantabingbushoudaoqishi。guoqugerenshoulieshijitishouliedeyizhongbuchongxingshi,liechanpinshigongyoude。danshisuizhefuxijiatinggongshexiangyouliegongshedeyanbian,mapihebuqiangdeshiyong,gerendandushouliebingqiejuyoushouliechanpinjiuchengweiyizhongqushi。yi“anga”weidanweidejitishoulieyugerendandushouliebingcunhenzhangdeshijian。youyushouliedeteshuxing,zhizhixinzhongguochenglichu,gerendandushouliebingbushishouliedezhuyaoxingshi。

风俗文化:

时时彩平台注册elunchunzudexianminyizhizaimangmanglinhaizhongguozheyoulieshenghuo,qichuantongwenhuayuyouliejinmidilianxizaileyiqi。

shiqishijizhongyeyiqian,elunchunrenshouliedezhuyaogongjushigongjian、zhaqiang、xunluheliequan,qiandaoheilongjiangyinanyihou,liemaqudaixunlu。18shijizhongye,elunchunrenyijingkaishishiyonghuoqiang,danbingweimashangfeiqigongjian,gongjianyuhuoqiangbingyong。elunchunrenzuizaoshiyongdeshihuoshengqiang、huolianqianghepaoziqiangdengsanzhonghuoqiang。cong19shijimokaishi,luxushiyongguogezhongbuqiang。youyudilihuanjingdeyingxiang,elunchunrennanqianhouzhujiantaotailexunlu,gaiyongliema。zaizhangqideyewaisiyangheshouliexunliandejichushang,elunchunrenpeiyuletixingaixiao、xingdongminjie,sudu、nailijujiaeryoushanyuzaishenshanmilinzhongchuanxingbenpaodeelunchunma,chengweishouliededelizhushouheyunzaigongju。chucizhiwai,elunchunlierenhaishiyongdijian、liedao、tiejia、huapichuan、huaxuebandengzuoweishouliegongju。

elunchunrenyou4geshoulieqi: 2-3yuefenshilutaiqi;6-7yuefenshilurong、anrongqi;9yuezhiluoxueqianshiluweiqi;luoxuehoudedongjishidapiziqihuodarouqi。zheixieshiduantongchengwei“hongweiqi”,jishouliedehuangjinqi。

时时彩平台注册paozi、malu、tuolu、meihualu、zhangzi、yezhudengshicaodongwushilierenmenjingchangliequdeduixiang,yeshitamenguoquyishisuoxudezhuyaolaiyuan。shirouleidehu、xiong、baodengmengshou,ximaoleidediao、sheli、shuita、huishu、he、huangyou、yetu、chihudeng,feiqinleideyeji、shuji、feilong、tiane、dayan、yeyadeng,junshielunchunlierendeliequduixiang。

lishishangdeelunchunrenshizuzhiduomoudelieshou,zaizhangqideshoulieshenghuozhong,zongjiechuxuduoliequdongwudefangfa,zuichangshiyongdeshouliefangfayouxunmifa、genzongfa、liaowangfa、dujiefa、dunshoujianchangfa、dunfupaozefa、taodongfa、youjiaofa、liuhefa、jiaolufadeng。

时时彩平台注册elunchunrenzaishouliedejianxiebuyu。chuntian,yuquncongheilongjiangniliuershang,jinrudaxiaozhiliu,elunchunrenyongwanghechabuzhuozheluo、xilindengdayu;xiajishichuidiaodezuihaojijie;qiutian,gezhongyuleishunliuyouhuidahedajiangguodong,shidangliangzidezuihaojijie,jikeyibudaoxiashuideyu,yekeyibudaoshangshuidedamahayu;dongji,zaibingmianshangdagaiwopengzaobingdongchayu,yekezaibingdongxiachuanwangbuyu。

时时彩平台注册elunchunfunvzaichun、xia、qiusanjijinxingcaijishengchan。chunjicaijiyecai,qiujicai、wayeguohekuaigenzhiwudeng,erxiajizhuyaocaijimogu、muerdengjunleizhiwu。xiajiyeshijianshiniaodandejijie。

lishishang,elunchunrendefangwuzhuyaoyou“xierenzhu”、chanfang、tujiaozi、mukelengfang、huapipeng(linpan)、bupeng(maihan)、gaojiaocangku(aolun)deng。“xierenzhu”shielunchunzuyoulieshizuizhuyaodezhufang,chengyuanzhuixing。gujiayongzhangruoganmidezhugan、daichadeshuganhe20duogen“xieren”(shugan)dacheng,qifugaiwuyoudongjiyongdepaopiweizi,xuyong60yuzhangpaopifengzhi,yeyonghuashupi、luweilianhebuweizi。“xierenzhu”zhengduimendepuweijiao“malu”,shigongshendedifang,zhixunanxingkerenhenanzhurenzuowo。erzi、erxizhuzuocepuwei,fumuzhuyoucepuwei。zhongjianyouhuotang,shangdiaoyitieguo,yeyouyongsanjiaojiazhiguode。“aolun”shiyizhongdagaizaisenlinzhongdegaojiaocangfang,cunfangzanshibuyongdeyizhe、rougan、gancai、liangshideng。

elunchunrenchuantongdejiaotonggongjuzhuyaoyouxunlu、ma、huapichuan、shoupichuan、mufa、huaxuebanhexueqiaodeng。xunlushizainanqianyiqianpubianshiyongde,nanqianyihouzhububeimasuodaiti。elunchunrenshiyongguoyimapi、anpihuolupiweididechuan。

guoqu,elunchunrendeyinshiyishourouweizhu,yu、yecaiweifu,houlaichuanrulemimian。elunchunrenxihuanshiyongpaozi、lu、an、yezhu、xiongrou,tongshiyeshiyongxiaodongwuhefeiqinrou。zuofazhuyaoyouzhushoubarou、kaorou、shaorou、dunroutang、shairougan、zahuacai、guanxueqing、gusuiyou、shengpaoganheyaozideng。mimianshizhuyaoyoumianpian、youmianpian、luomianbing、shaomian、miantang、youchaomian、rouzhou、choulizizhou、nianfandeng。elunchunyuchengyoumianpianwei“tuhulie”,jiangganhaodemianyipianpianjiujingunkaidebaishuili,laochuhoubanshuroupian、shiyan、yejiucaihuadengzuoliao,daorujiaredeyezhuyouhuoxiongyou,banyunhoushiyong。choulizizhoushielunchunzuyizhongteshudechifa,jiangchoulizifangruzhouzhongzhu,baokaichengfenhongsejikeshiyong,seyanweimei。

elunchunzuxihewuweizitanghehuashuzhi。meinianchunjidewuliuyuefen,zaihuashugenbukanyigexiaokou,huashuzhibianhuiyongchu,qingchetouming,gantiankekou。elunchunrenhaiheyizhongchengzuo“dierguse”dehuashujiang,jianghuashudewaipibodiao,yongliedaozaishuganshangqingqingguaxiarubaisedezhanchouzhuangshuye,qiweigantianqingshuang。

时时彩平台注册guoqu,elunchunrenchuandeyifuzhuyaoshiyongpaopifengzhide,yeyonglupihexiaoanpi。nanpipaoyouzhangpaoheduanpaoliangzhong。nanpipaodejinbian、xiukoujunxiangyouheisebopiyunzibian,weilebianyuqima,qianhouzuoyoukaicha。duanpipaozaishoulieshichuanyong。nvpipaodeyangshiyunanpipaodazhixiangtong,danqianhoubukaicha,jinbian、xiukoudengchuxiangyoujingmeidebopiyunzibian,qianjin、xiukou、shuangjiandengchujunxiuyougezhongwenshi。laonianrenchuandepipao,zhixiangbianbuxiuhua,zhesejiaodan。pipaodeniukouguoquyongshouguhuoyingmuzuocheng,houlaiyeyongtongniukou。guoquyaodaiyongluanpizhizuo,houlainianqingfunvduozhahuang、zi、lansedebuyaodai,erlaonianfunvyibanzhasusedeyaodai。chuantongdepikujiaoduan,zhijixi,haixuchuantaoku,yongpaopihuolupizhizuo,shangbiandingdepishengxizaikuyaodaishang,xiamiandingdepishengxizaixieyaoshang。funvchuandepikukuyaoliangcekaicha,kutuijikukouchujunxiangyougezhongyunziwenshi。

daolejindai,gezhongbupi、chouduanchuanruelunchundiqu,xiajinannvdouchuanyizhongjiao“chamucha”debuzhangshan。nanrenhaichuanmagua、kanjianhebuxiaogua。dongji,nanrendaiyizhongyongwanzhengdepaotoupifengzhidemaozi,baoliupaoer、yan、bi,youdeshenzhijianglianggejiaobaoliuxialai。funvmendaishelipimaozi,huodiaoyoupimao、xiuyouwenshidezhanmao。xiaji,nanrendaiyizhongyongbuzuodejiandingde“bali”mao。nvrenxiajidaiyizhongjiao“qihabutun”detoushi。dongjichuandexieyouyongpaotuipizuoyao、paobozipizuoyaodidebangaopixue。shoutaoyou“kaohulu”、“warige”he“sharibahei”3zhong,doushiyongpaopizhizuode。

时时彩平台注册elunchunzuyongpaopifengzhiyizhongjiao“nanawula”depibei。youliangzhong,yizhongshiputongde,lingyizhongshiyongdongjiliedaodepaopifengzhideshuidai,zuoshuangrenshuidaixuyong8zhangpaopi,danrenyong6zhangpaopi。zaiyewaishoulieshi,lierenzaibingtianxuedilijiusuyuzheizhongshuidaizhong。ruziyoupaotuipi、paopi、xiongpi3zhong。

elunchunrenchuantongshougongyeyouhuapizhipin、zhige、pizhipin、maozhipin、muzhipin、guzhipin、tiezhipin、qianzhipindeng。elunchunrenzaimeiniande6-7yueboquhuashupi,jingjiagonghoukeyizhizuozhongleifanduodeqiwu,congrichangshenghuoyongdewan、pen、tong、xiang、lou、maohe、zhenxianhe、yanhe,daoshengchanyongde“guyuewen”(shiguoju)、huapichuan、paoshaoyijifugai“xierenzhu”de“tiekesha”。huashupizhipinshiyingleelunchunrenyoulieshenghuodetedian。elunchunrendepizhipindaduoyongpaopi,qiciweilu、anpi,qitashoupizejiaoshao。

elunchunzudecixiuyouzhixiuhefengxiuliangzhong。zhixiushizaiyiwushangyongxianxiuchengxiangyingdetuan;erfengxiushibashoupi、bujianchenggezhongtuan,fenghezaiyifuhexiemaoshang。cixiudetuanzhuyaoyoutuanhua、jihewen、bolangwen、dulihuawen、jiaoyuwenhesamanfushangdeshumu、dongwu、renwudeng。

jianpishielunchunzufunvchuangzaodeyizhongshifendutedeyishuxingshi。taliyonghuashupiheshoupijianzhichengrenwu、dongwudengxingxiang,zuoweiertongdewanju;weileshipipao、maozi、koudai、shoutaodekouyan、sijiaomeiguan、naiyong,haijianzhiyixietuan,yongpaojin、lujinxianfengshang,chengweiyizhongyishuzhuangshipin。shenhuagushi、renwuxingxiang、dongwuxingxiang、zhuangshituandengshijianpiyishudeticai。jianpiyishufanyingleelunchunzuzaiyoulieshenghuozhongxingchengdeshenmeiguanheduimeidezhuiqiu。

elunchunrenhaiyongmazong、mawei、anmao、xiongmaodengbianzhishenghuoyongpin。

时时彩平台注册elunchunrendezhuangshipinyouerhuan、xiangshi、shouzhuo、dingzhen、beishi、xiangbao、ertao、xuejingdeng。nanrendaiguoyongshouguhetongtiezhizuodezhihuan,kaishishijinweilagongshejian。xuejingyouyongmaweibianzhideheyonghuashubaozizhizuodeliangzhong。youyizhongdingzhenshiyonganguzhuozhide。xiangbaotongchangyongpaopifengzhi,chengbianfuxing、pingguoxing,liangmianxiuhua,shishaonvdeshiwu。

diaokeshielunchunzushougongjiagongdeyibufen,yeyongyuzongjiaoyongpin,fenfudiaoheyuandiaoliangzhong。fudiaozhuyaodiaokezaihuashupiqiminshang,yebaokuodaoqiao、maan、lushao、muheshangdediaoke。yuandiaoshiyongliedaoduimuliao、songshupi、shougudengjinxingdelitidiaoke,shifenjingzhi。diaokedewenyangzhuyaoyouyunwen、huiwen、jihewen、bolangwen、huandaiwen、shiziwen、tuanhuadeng,huayangzhuyaoyou“kuiyegeyin”hua、“zhuledouhen”hua、“nanchuoluo”huadeng。

elunchunzudejieqingzhuyaoyougouhuojie、chunjiehemoheijie。elunchunyuchenggouhuojiewei“gulunmuta”,jisihuoshenzhiyi,zaimeiniande6yuechujuxing。chunjieshielunchunzuzhongyaodejieri。guoqu,chuxiyegejiagehuzaizhufangqianranqigouhuo。nianyefanqian,laorenbagezhongshenkandakai,baifangzaiwuneide“malu”shang,huodaofanghouguayoushenkandedifang,baishangjiurou,ranxiangshanggong,quanjiarenyicixiangshenouketou,qiqiushenlingbaoyou。zaifangmenqianhuocuntundaokouweiwanglingshaozhiketouhou,quanjiarenzaiyiqichituanyuanfan。chuyizaochen,quanjiarenhaiyaoxiangdonghuonanji“bainaqia”shen(shanshen)ketou,qiqiuduociliewu,erhouyaoxianghubainian。zhengyueshiliuguomoheijie,xianghuwanglianshangmoguodihui,yiquganguixie。xianzaigengduohanyouyouxi、xiqingzhiyuyi。shouzhouweiminzudeyingxiang,xianzaiyeguoduanwujie、zhongqiujie、xinniandeng。

时时彩平台注册elunchunshiyigejiangchangwenxueshifenfadademinzu,baokuochuanshuo、gushi、shenhua、yanyu、miyu、geyao、xiaohua、xiehouyudeng。zhangpianjiangchangwenxue“mosukun”shielunchunzuminjianwenxuedezhenpin。“mosukun”yishuochangjiehedexingshi,jiangchang“morigen”deyingxionggushihekunandeshenshi,keyijiangchangshutianhuoshushitian。“mosukun”deyuyanliuchang、yayun、jinglian、poshi,qudiaoqifubianhuabuda,feichangyueerdongting,daiyounongyudeminzuchuantongyunwei。

时时彩平台注册elunchunzudeyinleyi“zandawen”shangequdiaoweizhu,gaokangqingtou,banyouyanzhangyinhezhanyin,youmeidongting。“zandawen”degecijixingtianjia,yuyanposhi,ganqingnonglie。jinyoudeyizhongleqishijiao“pengnuha”huo“kamusikan”dekouxianqin,yinliangsuiweiruo,dannengchuizouchugezhongqudiao。

elunchunzudewudaofenyishiwu、yulewu、zongjiaowusandalei,gongtongtedianshibiangebianwu。dongzuoyoumandaokuai,dongzuojiliezhigaochaoshijieshu。daibiaoxingwudaoyou“yihenenen”、“yihanen”、heixiongbodouwudeng。“yihenenen”shisannianyicideshizudahuishangjinxingdequanzuxingwudao,shijirenweiyizu,yirenjuzhongyang,qiyurenshoulashouweichengquanertiao。guoquyigeshizujizhongqilaichuanjiapuhezupushitiaozheizhongwu。liuchuanyuelunchunzizhiqisanrenbiaoyandeheixiongbodouwu,mofangheixiongbodouxixideneirong,jifuelunchunzuchuantongwenhuadetese。biaoyanshihuxianghouchu“hamo”、“hamo”deshengyin,xianyouliangrenbiaoyanbodou,zuihoudisanzheshanglaiquanjie。

时时彩平台注册elunchunrenchuantongdehunyinyoufumubaoban,shixingyifuyiqideshizuwaihunzhi,haishixingjianjiedejiaocuocongbiaohun,jingguoqiuhun、renqin、guocailihejiehundengguocheng,cailiyimapiweizhu。yanjinshizuneihunhuoxingxingwei。nannvhunyinduoyounanfangtuomeirenqiuhun,yibanqiusancicaicheng,disanciyouweiguanjian。qiuchenghou,shangdingrenqin、guocailideriqi。zairenqinderizi,nanfangyaoliuzainvfangjia,shijian20tianzhi1geyuebudeng。nvfangyaojiweilaidexinlanghuanshangyongheipizixiangbiandexinyifuhehongbukanjian(beimianhejiantouxiuyouyunwen),weilaidexinniangyaobatoufashuchenglianggebianzichanzaitoushang,zheishidinghundebiaozhi。zaijiehunneitian,xinlanghehuobanmenyisaimadexingshijinrunvfangzhudi,jingguoyixiliedeyishihou,xinlangdangwanzhuzaixinniangjia。diertianxinniangbeijiedaoxinlangzhudi。xinlangdemaozishangdaidiaoweihe4gexiuhuapiaodai,xinniangtoushangdaizheshipin,nannvdoupeidailiedao,xinniangzaibaitiandishitoushangmengzhehuabu。xianzaidehunyinxingshiyuhanzujibenxiangtong。

elunchunrendezangshizhuyaoyoufengzang(yechengshuzang)、tuzanghehuozang,yeshixingguoxianshuzanghoutuzangdeercizang。huanjibingdeqingnianrenheyunfuyonghuozang。rensihou,chuanhaoyifutoubeijiaonanzhiyuyuanlaijuzhude“xierenzhu”nei,yongzhi(guoquhaicengyonghuashupi、shoupideng)menglian,qiyishilinghuntiezhezhijinkuaidaoyanluowangchu。juxingyixiliedediaosangyishihoucainengchubin。chubinqianxuanyigeyoushanyoushuideshanpoxiaweimudi。chubinshiyouqinshuhehaoyoutaizheguancaihusong。ruguosizhedezinvjiaoduo,chubinshiqingsamansonghun,yizuzhisizhelinghunweijizinv。yousizhejiarenzhayigecaoren,zaicaorenshangxihenduoxian,zinvgeqianyitiaoxian,yousamanqidao,zuihousamanyongshenbangbaxiandaduan,jiangcaorenrengchu,jiurenweisizhedelinghunyuanqule。elunchunrenyouyongsizhezuoqixunzangdexisu,yekeyijiangsizhedeyiwu、majutuoyumashang,raozangdijiquanyishixunma。elunchunrenhaiyaojuxinglongzhongdezhounianji。

elunchunrendeliyishiyijinglaoweizhongxinde。zhuyaolijieyouquxiqinganheketouliangzhong。wanbeirenjiandaozhangbeiyaoyongqinganli,pingbeirenjianmianyeyaohuzhiqinganliwenhou。ketoulizaiqishenjizu、hunsang、jieqingdengzhuangzhongchangheshixing。elunchunrenfeichangzunjinglaorenhezhangbei。wanbeirenzaizhangbeimianqianyaobigongbijing,zhangyouyouxu,xingweideti。chuyuanmenqianhehuilaihoudouyaoxiangzhangbeiqingan。chumenhuoshouliezhongyudaozhangbei,zaixiangjuhenyuandedifangxiama,buxingyingshangquqingan,daizhangbeirenguoquhoucainengqimaxinglu。elunchunrenreqinghaoke,yichengdairen,zhaodaibijinchengyi。tianwanzeliukerenzhusu。elunchunzunannvyoubie,nankerenbunengzuoerxifuheguniangdepuwei,nvkerenyebunengzuonanrendepuwei。elunchunrengegejiatingjianyouhuxiangbaifangdelijie。

“keyechu”、“banji”、“sabuka”、“galaha”、saima、shejian、sheji、shuaijiao、lagang、youyong、pansheng、pagan、huaxue、huabing、daqiuqian、rengshitou、banwan、lagoudengshielunchunrendechuantongyouxihetiyuxiangmu。“keyechu”shiyongmutouzhizuodeyizhongjiangpai,gong120kuai,guoqushifenshengxing。“banji”shielunchunzudeyizhongweiqi,youqipanheqizizucheng,gong37meiqizi。

时时彩平台注册elunchunzudejinjizhuyaoyoushengchanjinji、funvjinji、shenghuojinji、ziranjinji、dongwujinjidengdeng。biru,shoulieqianbunengshuonengdadaoduoshaoliewu,fouzeshenmedoudabudao;nvrenbuxuzuozai“malu”shang;funvbuxupuxiongpi;duixiongbunengchengxiong,ercheng“taitie”;bunengyongdaohuotieqidaohuo,fouzechongfanhuoshen;nianqingrenbunengjiaozhangbeirendemingzideng。

xinzhongguochengliyiqian,elunchunrenpubiancunzaitutengchongbai、ziranchongbai、shenlingchongbai、zuxianchongbaidengyuanshichongbaihesamanjiaoxinyang。wanwuyoulingshielunchunrenyuanshichongbaihesamanjiaoxinyangdejichu。

zaielunchunrendechongbaiwuzhong,duixiong、hudechongbaidaiyoututengchongbaidehenji。elunchunrenrenweirenshixiongbiande,tamenzailiexiongguochengzhongheliedaoxiongyihou,zunchengxiongxiongwei“yaya”(zufu)、“amaha”(jiufu)huo“etikeen”(laotou),chengmuxiongwei“taitie”(zumu)huo“eniehe”(bomu)。zaishiyongxiongdeguochengzhong,bansuizheyixiliedejixiong、xiongjinji、chongbaixiong、zangxiongdengyishihexingwei。

时时彩平台注册zaiwanwuyoulingdejichuzhishang,elunchunrenjiangriyuexingchen、fengyuleidian、shanchuanhehu、dongzhiwudengzuoweichongbaideduixiang。elunchunrenrenwei,rensihoudelinghunrengrancunzai,jikehairen,yekeyouren,yushizuxianchongbaijiuchanshengle。

zaiweirenzhibing、chuanjiaoxinsamanfashu、juxingjishenyishishiyaotiaoshen。tiaoshenguochengzhong,samanyicichangqingshenge、shendege、songshenge。qudiaoduozhongduoyang,changcijixingchuangzuo。

yuyuanshizongjiaoxianglianxide,haiyouzhanbuhewushu。zhuyaoyougubu、shuzhibu、qiangbu、kuaizibu、penbudeng。elunchunrendewushi,zhibingdebeichengzuo“bakeqi”,zhitianhua、mazhendebeichengzuo“wutuoqin”,zhuchijishenyishidebeichengzuo“chaerbalaiqin”deng,tamenzaielunchunzuzhonghenshouzunzhong。

发展现状:

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochengliyihou,danghezhengfucaiquduoxiangfuchizhengce,bangzhuelunchunzufazhan,elunchunzurenminjieshuleyoulieshenghuo,shixianledingju,jinrudaolexiandaiminzudefazhanxinglie。tebieshigaigekaifangyihou,elunchunzudezhengzhi、jingji、wenhuadenggexiangshiyegengshiyiqiansuoweiyoudesudushixianlekuayueshidefazhan。

1951nian4yue7ri,zhongyangrenminzhengfuzhengwuyuanpizhunchenglielunchunqi,elunchunzuhuodeleminzuquyuzizhidequanli,zizhudiguanliquyuneibenminzuneibushiwu。1952nian5yue31ri“elunchunqi”gaiweielunchunzizhiqi。1953nian,quanqirenkouzhiyou946ren,qizhong,elunchunzu797ren,weiyigezhiyoujibairendeelunchunzushelizizhidifang,chongfenshuomingxinzhongguoduirenkoujiaoshaominzudezhongshi。1984nian,jianlixiangzhengfu,zizhiqixiashe9gexiang、5gezhen;1988nian,quanqixiashe6zhen8xiang;muqian,quanqixiashe8zhen2xiang,quanqiyouelunchunzu2322ren(2003nian),800duomingelunchunzulieminjujuyutuozhaminxiang、gulixiang、wulubutiezhen、nuominzhenzhongde7geliemincun。

1957nian,heilongjiangshengchenglilehumaxianshibazhan、aihuixianxinsheng、xunkexianxine3geminzuxiang,1958nianyouxinexianghuachuxinxingcunchenglixinxingelunchunzuxiang。1958nian,4geminzuxianggaiweirenmingongshe。1984nianhuifuminzuxiangjianzhi,xinchenglibaiyinnaminzuxiang。muqian,heilongjiangshenggongyou5geelunchunzuxiang,6geelunchunzucun。elunchunzuhuodeleguangfancanzheng、yizhengquanli。50duonianlai,zaiguojia、sheng(qu)、shi(di)、qixian(qu)、xiang(zhen)gejirenmindaibiaodahuidaibiaohegejizhengxieweiyuanzhong,douyouelunchunzuchengyuan。2000nian,zaielunchunzudezhiyegouchengzhong,guojiajiguan、dangqunzuzhiheqiyeshiyedanweifuzerenyou168ren,zhanzhenggeelunchunzuzhiyerenkoude5%。elunchunzujinrudaoguojiadegeleixingzhengheshiyejigouzhongrenzhi。

1953nianyiqian,youlieshenghuozuaileelunchunzudefazhan,tebiebuliyufazhanwenhua、jiaoyuheweishengshiye。weici,gedizhengfujinxingledingjuqiandeyixiliezhunbeigongzuo。zuzhielunchunzudaodachengshicanguan,shitamencongzhiguanshangganshoudingjudehaochu。cong1953nianchuntiankaishi,heilongjiangshenggongxuan10gedingjudian,jiantumujiegoufangwu313dong,800yujian。elunchunzizhiqidingjujianfangshicong1954nian4yuepotudonggongde,9yuejungong,guoqingjieqianxi,elunchunrenminkaishibanjinxincun,zhushanglexinfang,jieshuleshishidaidaijuzhu“cuoluozi”deyoulieshenghuo,shixianledingju。xinzhongguojianliyiqian,elunchunzucengjinglingxingchangshizifadingju,qingmominchuhaishituqiangpodingju,danjunyishibaigaozhong。yinci,xinzhongguoelunchunzudingjudechenggongjuyouhuashidaideyiyi,tashielunchunzulishixingkuayueshifazhandebiaozhi。weilegonggudingjudechengguo,elunchunzizhiqiheheilongjiangshengfenbieyu1981nianhe1984nianweielunchunzunongliehuquanbujianzaolezhuanwajiegouzhufang。

dingjuyihou,elunchunzizhiqizhongdianfangzailehulinfanghuo、fazhanshengchan、xingwangrenkoufangmian。heilongjiangshenghezizhiqizhengfuwuchangweielunchunzuliemindiaohuanqiangzhi、danyao,fuchishoulieshengchan。tongshi,tigongliangshiheshenghuobixupin,1947-1948nian,jinxiangheilongjiangshenghumaxianelunchunzutigongmimianjiuduoda14.4wanduogongjin。heilongjiangshengelunchunzudiquheelunchunzizhiqixiangjichenglihulindui,bujinzhuanbianleelunchunzuchuantongdeshengchanxiguan,jiangyoujihuashoulieyuhulinfanghuojieheqilai,erqiezengjialeshouru。

jinguanjinglile“dayuejin”、“renmingongshehua”he“wenhuadageming”dechongji,shengchanfangzhenyejijingxiugaihediaozheng,danelunchunzujingjihaishidedaolefazhan。tebieshigaigekaifangyihou,elunchunzujingjijinrulefazhandekuaichedao。gaigekaifangyihou,heilongjiangshengde6geelunchunzucundejingjifazhanjiaokuai。1984nianrenjunshouruzhiyou190duoyuan,2004niandadao2000duoyuan。1996nian,elunchunzizhiqishixingquanmianjinlie,bingfajijinlieshenghuobuzhu。1951nian,elunchunzizhiqielunchunzulieminderenjunshouruzhiyou68yuan,jinlieqiande1995nianwei1680yuan,jinliehoude2005niandadao2894yuan。elunchunzizhiqihuajiliemin4.2wanmucaochang,fuchilieminfazhanchumuye。muqian,elunchunzulieminquanbunarudibao。zai7geliemincunzhong,yiyoulianggeshixianshequhuaguanli。

elunchunzudechanyejiegoufashenglelishixingdebianhua,congyishoulieyeweizhuzhuanweiyinongmuyeweizhu。2000nian,quanguoelunchunzuxingyerenkouwei3211ren,qizhong,congshinong、mu、lin、yuyedewei1284ren,zhanzhenggexingyerenkoude40%。

时时彩平台注册zhongguogongchandanghezhengfugaoduzhongshielunchunzujiaoyudefazhan,zaiyingjiansheshi、jiaoshiduiwushishicaipingtaizhuce、xueshengbutiedengfangmiandaliangtouru,tongshihaizhidingyixieteshudezhengcefazhanelunchunzujiaoyu。ru1987nianheilongjiangshengguiding,zailuquelunchunzukaoshengshi,shengshubenkeyuanxiao、zhuankexuexiao、diandadengzaigaiyuanxiaozuidiluqufenshuxianxiazhaogu20fenluqu,rengbunengjinbenkeduande,kexiansongshengbanshaoshuminzuyukebanxuexiyinianhouzairubenkeyuanxiaoxuexi。cong1995nianzhi2004nian,heilongjiangshenggongyou49mingelunchunzuxueshengtongguoyukebanjinrudaxuexuexi。2000nian,quanguoelunchunzu6suiji6suiyishangshoujiaoyurenkouzhong,yanjiusheng12ren,daxuebenke181ren。qizhong,jieshouyanjiusheng、daxuebenke、daxuezhuankejiaoyuderenshuzhan6suiji6suiyishangrenkouzongshudebili,jungaochuquanguopingjunshuiping。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochengliqian,chuanranbingduoqulewushuelunchunrendeshengming。xinzhongguochengliyilai,zhongguogongchandanghezhengfucaiqugexiangcuoshigaishanelunchunzudeyiliaoweishengtiaojian,ru,duielunchunzujinxingmianfeiyiliao,zuchengxunhuiyiliaodui,weielunchunzuyizhigezhongjibing。elunchunzudejiankangzhuangkuangdedaolemingxiandegaishan。muqian,9geelunchunzunongcunjuminjujudexiangzhendoujianyouweishengyuan。xiaoshoushuzaixiangzhenyiyuanjinxing,yiliaotiaojianhaodeyiyuanhaikeyizuoyiqianbunengzuodedashoushu。elunchunzunongcunjuminshixingmianfeiyiliao。zhangqiyingxiangelunchunzushentijiankangdefeijiehefabinglvyouxinzhongguochenglichuqide10%yishangkongzhidaoxianzaide3%yixia。elunchunzuertongquanbujinxingjihuamianyi,yingerchenghuolvwei100%。funvdechangjianbing、duofabingyededaoleyouxiaokongzhi。2005nian,elunchunzuderenjunshoumingbixinzhongguochenglichuqitigaole20suizuoyou。

时时彩平台注册muqian,neimengguelunchunzizhiqide4geelunchunrenkoujizhongdexiangzhenheheilongjiangsheng5geelunchunzuxiangdoujianyouwenhuazhan、guangbozhan、weixingdimianjieshouzhandengwenhuasheshi。《elunchunzuchuantongminge》、《elunchunzuminjianwenxue》、《elunchunminjiangushixuan》、《elunchunminjianwudaojicheng》、《elunchunzugequxuan》、《elunchunyu》、《elunchunyuhanyuduizhaoduben》dengyipifeiwuzhiwenhuayichandeyanjiuchengguochuban。elunchunzuzuojiaaozhangfudezuopinliangcihuoquanguoxiaoshuochuangzuoerdengjiang,yipielunchunzuzuojia、shiren、gechangjia、wudaojiahehuajiadengwenhuarencaichengzhangqilai。

elunchunzudetiyushiyeyexunsufazhan。dao1983nianweizhi,elunchunzushejiyundongyuangeweiliegong33cidapoxiaokoujingzixuanbuqianglishehewoshegerenquanguojilu,huodeleyayunhuiguanjunheyajinsaiguanjun,bingbeishouyu“xinzhongguotiyukaituozhe”rongyuchenghao。

zuoweiyigexinzhongguochenglichuqirengchuyuyouliezhuangtaideminzu,elunchunzuqudedefazhanchengjiukeyichengweiqiji。jinru21shiji,guojiajiangjixuchutaigexiangfazhanrenkoujiaoshaominzudeyouhuizhengce,elunchunzujiangyinglaiyouyigexindefazhanshiqi。

 

                                                  (摘自《民族问题五种丛书》之《中国少数民族》卷)

 
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