时时彩平台注册

 
 

鄂温克族

民族概况:

时时彩平台注册ewenkezugongyou30505ren(2000nian),zhuyaofenbuzaineimengguzizhiqudeewenkezuzizhiqi、chenbaerhuqi、molidawadawoerzuzizhiqi、genheshi、elunchunzizhiqi、arongqi、zhalantunshiheheilongjiangshengdenehexiandengdi。

ewenkeyushuaertaiyuximan—tonggusiyuzutonggusiyuzhi,youhailaer、chenbaerhuheaoluguyasanzhongfangyan,meiyoubenminzuwenzi。youyuzhangqiyumenggu、dawoer、elunchun、handengminzujiaocuozaju,yinci,ewenkezudeshuangyuhuoduoyuxianxiangbijiaotuchu。muqudeewenkezutongyongmengguyuwen,nongyequhekaoshanqudeewenkezutongyonghanyuwen。

时时彩平台注册zuoweiewenkezudezhuyaojujuqu,ewenkezuzizhiqiweiyuneimengguzizhiqudedongbeibu,zongmianji19111pingfanggongli。yongyoukeliyongcaochang11803.3pingfanggongli,zhanquanqitudimianjide62%;youlindi6462pingfanggongli,zhanquanqitudimianjide33%。

zizhiqijingneiheliuzongheng,hubomibu。youyiminhe、huihe、xinihedeng263tiaoheliuhe600duogehubozirunzhezheikuailiaokuodetudi。jingneiyeshengzhiwuzhongleifanduo,gongyou72ke284shu621zhong。zaidaxinganlingdeyuanshisenlinzhong,yousong、hua、zhangdengshumu。ciwai,jingneihaifenbuzheguojiaerjibaohuzhiwuxinganliu。zizhiqishitianranluweidezhumingchandi,meinianweizaozhigongyetigongdaliangdeyouzhiyuanliao。caoyuanbaimo、hualianmo、zimo、lingzhishigaiqizhenguidetutechan。

zizhiqideyeshengdongwuziyuanjiweifengfu。shengchanpaozi、xiong、yezhu、lu、tuolu、huangyangdeng4gemu14ke49zhongyeshou,shouguojiabaohudezhenxidongwuyou12zhong。niaoleiziyuanyoushabanji、tiane、feilonghewujideng。

gaiqidedixiaziyuanyoumei、tie、xin、lv、pi、shihuiyandeng,qizhongyimeidechuzangliangzuiweifengfu,yitanmingchuliangwei103.12yidun。

历史沿革:

lishishang,ewenkezucengbeichengzuo“suolun”、“tonggusi”he“yakute”。“suolun”yicichuzimanyu,you“xianfeng”、“sheshou”he“qinglai”zhiyi。mingmoqingchu,“suolun”yebaokuoelunchunzuhedawoerzu。houlai,qitaminzuzhujiancong“suolun”zhongfenlichulai,“suolun”chengweineimengguzizhiquewenkezuzizhiqi、molidawadawoerzuzizhiqi、arongqi、zhalantunshiyijiheilongjiangshengnehexianewenkezudechengwei。“tonggusi”zhuyaoshizhichenbaerhuqi、ewenkeqixiniheliuyudeewenkeren,zheibufenewenkerenzhuyaocongshichumuyeshengchan。siyangxunlubingyiyoulieweishengdeewenkerenzainanqianyiqianshenghuozaixiboliyachanbaoshizhidi,suoyicaiwabaoshidetujuerenchengqiwei“yakute”,yisishi“shenghuozaichanbaoshizhidideren”。houlai,eluosirenyeyanyong“yakute”yici,zuoweizheibufenewenkerendechenghu。zaibenminzuneibu,zicheng“ewenke”。

guanyu“ewenke”yicidehanyi,zhuyaoyousanzhongshuofa: “zhuzaidashanlinzhongderenmen”、“zhuzaishannanpoderenmen”he“(congshanding)xialaiderenmen”。wulunnazhongshuofa,doushuomingewenkezuzuichujuzhuyushanlinzhizhong,shiyigesenlinshoulieminzu。1957nian,genjubenminzudeyiyuan,tongchengweiewenke。

ewenkezushiyigegulaodeminzu。zaozaigongyuanqian2000nian,ewenkezudezuxianjiufenbuzaibeijiaerhuyanandiqu,congshiyulieshengchan。

beiweishiqideshiwei,tebieshiqizhongdebeishiwei、boshiweiyijitangchaodejubu,yuewenkezudezuyuanyouzhemiqiedeguanxi,tongshiyeyuzhongyuanwangchaobaochizhewanglaiguanxi。jushishujizai,beishiwei、boshiweiyi“shelieweiwu,shirouyipi,zaobingmeishuizhongerwangyubie”,yonghuashupigaiwu,shiyonghuaxueban,shixingfengzangdengxisu,zhengshiewenkezuzaoqishenghuodexiezhao。tangchaozaihoubeijiaerdiqusheliyoulingdoudufuguanxiaboyegu、jubu。liaochaojianliyihou,qijiangyubeizhiwaixinganling,xibeizhibeijiaerhudiqu,cengshelishiweidawangfuhejiedushijiezhizheiyiguangdaquyuneideminzhong,congerjiangewenkezuxianminnaruzijidetongzhizhixia。jinchaodeshangjingdaopuyulu,xiajingbeidawaixinganling“huoluhuotuan”(gouchengzhiyi)mouke,qitongzhifanweiyiyanshendaoewenkezuzuxiandeshijuzhidi。

yuandaishijibajuzhuzaibeijiaerhuyidong、guangdaheilongjiangliuyudeewenke、elunchun、menggudengzudouchengzuo“linmuzhongbaixing”。tamenyishelieweiye,yishoupi,zhuhuapiwu,siyangxunlu,shiyongmingjiao“chana”dehuaxuebanwanglaiyushanlinzhizhong,chuyuyuanshideyuliejingjishidai。1207nian,chengjisihanpaizhangzishuchizhengfalinmuzhongdebaixing。1235nian,wokuotaihanzaiheilongjiangshangyoudiqushekaiyuanlu、heninglu,yitongxialinmuzhongdebaixing。

时时彩平台注册1480nian,mingjunzhanlingyuanchaodelingbeixingshengsuozaidihelin,bingzaiwaibeijiaerhuyijiheilongjiangliuyuxianhoushezhibuludanhewei、qitaheweidengweisuo,guanxiadangdiminzhong。zaimingdaidewenxianzhong,ewenkerenbeichengwei“beishanyeren”huo“yerennvzhen”。

时时彩平台注册mingmoqingchudeewenkezugongfenweisandabufen: qiyishijuzhuyuyoushilekahezhijingqilijiangyidaidesuolunbu,zheishiewenkerendangzhongrenshuzuiduodeyibufen。youdulaer、aola、moerdile、bulamu、tukedong、nahatadengjigedashizu。tamenyudawoerrenzaju,zaiheilongjiangzhongyoubeianjianlilebushaomuchenghecuntun,qiqiuzhangshibomuboguoer。qiershisuolunbiebu,shibeijiaerhuyidongchitaheyidaide“shimabu”,youcheng“kamunikan”(buliyatemenggurendechenghu,yisishineibufeichangtuanjiederen)huo“namiyaer”huo“neimeita”,gongyoujiunamiyaer、xinnamiyaer、tuokongwoerdeng15geshizu,qishizushoulingyougentemuerdeng。qisanshi“shilubu”,fenbuyubeijiaerhuyixi,lenahezhiliuweilvheheweitimuheyidai。gongyou12gedashizu,qiuzhangshiyelei、sheertekudeng。

时时彩平台注册1633-1634nianjian,manzutongzhizhequdaimingchaodui“suolunbu”detongzhi。1635nianyouzhengfulebeijiaerhudiqude“kamunikan”;1639-1640nianzuihoutongyilebeijiaerhuyidongdesuolunbudiqu。

时时彩平台注册qingchaojiangewenkezuyishizuweidanweibiancheng“zuo”,xuanbalezuolingdengguanzhi,meinianxiangqingchaonagongdiaopi。17shijizhongyeyihou,youyushaedeqinlve,qingchaojiangewenkezuqiandaoledaxinganlingdiqunenjiangliuyujuzhu。1732nian,qingchaocongbutehadiquchoudiao1600duomingewenkezubingding,xiedaijiashuqianzhihulunbeiercaoyuandiqu,zhushoubianfang。zheibufenrenbianshijintianewenkezuzizhiqideewenkezu。

时时彩平台注册ewenkezushiyigeyouzheguangrongdouzhengchuantongdeminzu,zhangqiyilai,tamentonggezurenminyidao,jinxinglebuqubunaodefanqinlvefanyapodouzheng。zaiweihuguojiatongyi、baoweizuguobianjiangdedouzhengzhong,zuochulezhongyaogongxian。

17shijizhongye,shaeqinruwoguoheilongjiangliuyu,shaoshalulve,wuebuzuo,jiqileewenkedenggezurenmindewubifennuhejianjuedikang。1651nian,shaefeituqinzhanheilongjiangshangyouewenkezujujuqu,ewenkezurenminfenqiyingyongfankang,tamenyonggongjianxianghuoqixilideshaeqinlvezhezhankailejianjuededouzheng。1664nian,ewenkezuyudangdimengguzujuminweigonglepanjuzainibuchudeshahuangfeitu,chenzhongdidajileshaeqinlvezhe。

zaishaechangkuangruqindeyanzhongxingshixia,qingchaozhengfucong17shiji80niandaichukaishijinxingziweifanji。baqijunduizhongdeewenkezuguanbingyingyongdicanjialeziweifanjiheshoufushidiyakesachengdezhandou。ewenkezurenmindalizhiyuanqingjunzuozhan,weiqingjun“ansheyizhan”,beiyangmapi,gongyingsiliao,chu“fuyi”,zhenchadiqingdeng,jijipeiheqingjundajishaeqinlvezhe。ru1683niansuolunzongguanbokedengren,cengduocidaibingdabaiqinlvezhe,huozhuole31geshaefeitu,bingjiangqizhong5renjiesongbeijing。

时时彩平台注册qingdaiewenkezudebaqiguanbing,cengbeiqingchaodiaowangquanguogedizhengzhan。ju《heilongjiangzhigao》jizai,baokuodawoerzu、elunchunzuzaineidebaqisuolunguanbing“zhuanzhanjidaershiersheng”,haicengzhufangzaidongbei、xibeibianjiangdeaihun、moergen、qiqihaer、hulunbeier、hulan、beijing、yili、taerbahatai、wulumuqidengdi。tamencengcanjiaguopingdingelutemengguzhungaerbugaerdandepanluan。qingdaiwenxianduoyou“suolunjinglv,congqianxiaolizuiduo”、“suolunxiaoliqinlao”dengjizai。

时时彩平台注册jindaiyilai,e、ridengdiguozhuyijiajinqinlvewoguodongbei、mengguhexibeidiqu,xianqiguafenzhongguodekuangchao。19shijimo,baofalezhenhanzhongwaideyihetuanfandiaiguoyundong。ewenkezurenminjijicanjialedongbeidiquyihetuandefandiaiguowuzhuangdouzheng。

时时彩平台注册xinhaigeminghou,zaishaedezhichixia,mengguzufandongshangcengshengfudengdazhesuoweihulunbeier“zizhi”dezhaopai,jinxingfenliezuguodezuiehuodong;zairibentewudezhishixia,mengguzufandongwanggongbabuzhabudengyinmoufupi。ewenkezurenminhemenggudenggezurenminyidaoyingyongdouzheng,fensuiletamendeyinmouhuodong,dajilee、riqinlvezheheminzuneibudefandongpai。ewenkezurenminhaicengduijunfazhankaiguowuzhuangdouzheng。

“jiu?yiba”shibianhou,nehejikaoshanqudeewenkezurenminhehan、dawoerdengzurenmin,cengxiangribenqinlvezhezhankaiwuzhuangdouzheng,houlaiyouyushangcengrenwudepanmaierzaodaoshibai。zaizhongguogongchandanglingdaodedongbeikangrilianjunchenglihou,bushaoewenkezuernvyongyuecanjia,jianchiwuzhuangdouzheng。ewenkezurenminjijijikangrilianjunsongxin、yunliangshi、yanhushangyuan、peihekanglianjinxinggezhongxingshidedouzheng。1942nian,ribenjingchahetewudaoxihuihezhuaren,zaoyouzhunbeideewenkezumumincaiquturanxiji,yongpibian、mubangyanchengrijing,dadedirenlangbeitaocuan。1944nian,genheshideewenkezukugongfennudidasileshumingriweijiangong,dajileqinlvezhedechangkuangqiyan。kangzhanshengliqianxi,ewenkezuliemincengzidongzuzhiqilai,jiangwankangzaidaxinganlingshenshanmilinlide30duomingrijunquanbuxiaomie。

ewenkerendeshizuzuzhi,jiao“hala”。tongyihaladeren,douyouxueyuanguanxi,juyougongtongdezuxianhexingshi。ewenkerenyibanyiheming、shanming、renminghuojuzhudimingchengmingmingzijideshizu,yinci,meiyigehaladouyougudingdemingcheng,qishizumingchengyoudoujuyouyidingdehanyi。liru,“dulaer”(zaihepangjuzhuderen)、“tukedong”(zaitushandixiajuzhuderen)、“nahata”(zaishannanpojuzhuderen)。tongyishizuderen,yougongtongdezuxianshen,chengzuo“shewoke”huo“aojiaoer”。shizuneibuchengyuan,yangejinzhihuxiangtonghun。minguoshiqi,youyushouhujizhidujihanwenhuayingxiang,kaoshanquhenongyequdexuduoshizujianhualexingshi。ru,“dulaer”shizujianchengweidu,“tukedong”shizujianchengweituhuodai,“nahata”shizujianchengweineideng。

meiyigeshizudouyouzijideshouling,chengzuo“halada”。haladatongguoshizuchengyuanminzhuxuanjudefangshierchansheng,qirenzhishijianmeiyoutongyiguiding。ruguohaladabanshibugongzheng,keyiyoushizuchengyuandahuibamian。haladayouquanzhaojishizuchengyuanzaizhidingdidiankaihui,shangtaohechulishizuneibudezhongyaoshiwu。tongshi,haladayeyouquanchulishizuneibudejiufen,youquanchufaweifanshizuxiguanfaderen。

时时彩平台注册zaiewenkezudeshizuzuzhizhishang,haicunzaizhebuluo。yinci,qingdaideewenkerenyoukeyifenweiruogangebuluo。youtongyibuluodegeshizuzhangzuchengbuluozhanglaoyishihui,xuanjubuluoqiuzhang。ewenkerendebuluotongyangyidiming、heming、shanmingermingming。liru,alunbuluojiushizhuzaialunheliuyudeewenkeren,you“dulaer”、“tukedong”、“nahata”sangeshizuzucheng;“genqian”jishijuzhuzaigenihedeewenkeren,you“tukedong”、“nahata”、“kaertajier”sandashizu。

youyuqianxiherenkoufanyandengyinsudeyingxiang,ewenkerendeshizuyoufenhuachuruogangedajiazu,ewenkeyuchengqiwei“maohong”。“maohong”shijianlizaigongyouzhijichuzhishangdefuxijiazugongshe,tongchangyoutongyifuxizuxianshidaiyineidezisunzucheng。

时时彩平台注册“maohong”deguimobuda,duozeshiyierhu,shaozeqibahu,yincishuyutongyi“maohong”derendouzhuzaitongyigecunluo、muchanghuoxianglindedifang。“maohong”bujinshiyizhongxueyuanzuzhi,erqieyeshiyizhongshehuijicengzuzhiheshengchanzuzhi。

“maohong”you“maohongda”guanlijiazuneibushiwu,youyougehulaorenzuchengde“maohonghuiyi”jiejuejiazuneibudezhongdawenti。“maohongda”zuoweijiazudeshouling,tongchangyounianfuliqiang、congmingnenggan、banshigongzhengderendanren,youjiazuchengyuanxuanjuchansheng。“maohongda”dezhizeshizhaojihezhuchijiazuhuiyi,weihujiazuxiguanfa,chulijiazuchengyuanzhijiandejiufen,chufafancuowudejiazuchengyuan,baoguanzupu,daibiaobenjiazuyuguanfanghuoqitajiazujiaoshedeng。“maohongda”lvxingzhizewanquanshiweijiazujinyiwu,meiyoubaochou,yemeiyougudingderenqi。ruguo“maohongda”shishihuozheyinnianlaotishuaiwufalvxingzhizeshi,renmencaixuanjuxinde“maohongda”。“maohongda”fancuowuhuobulvxingqizhize,yehuibeijiazuchengyuanbamian。

时时彩平台注册“maohong”gongtongzhanyoutudi、senlin、heliu、liechanghemuchang。tongyi“maohong”deren,zaishengchanshangyouhuxianghezuo、huxiangbangzhudeyiwu。zailiequ,“maohong”shijinxingjitishoulieshengchandedanwei,yigehuojige“maohong”delieshoumenlianheqilaijinxingweiliehuodong,liehuowupingjunfenpei。zainongyequ,gexiaojiatinglianheqilaigongtongjinxingnongyeshengchan,nongchanpinyougehupingjunfenpei。zaimuqu,tongyi“maohong”derenjiangshengchuhequnfangmuzaijiazudegonggongmuchangshang,ershengchuzeguigejiagehusuoyou。

ewenkerende“maohong”zuzhiyanxulexiangdangzhangdeshijian。weimanzhouguoshiqi,shixingbaojiazhidu,muquhenongyequewenkerende“maohong”zuzhibeiqudai。zaiyouliedeewenkerendangzhong,zhidaoxinzhongguochengliqian,shehuifazhanshangchuzaiyuanshishehuimoqidejieduan,renmenguozheyi“maohong”weijingjidanwei、gongtongcanjiashoulieshengchan、anhupingjunfenpeiliehuowudeshenghuo。buguo,zheizhongjiazugongsheyikaishifashengbianhua,shoulieyongdeqiangzhi、xunlu,yiweixiaojiatingsiyou,gebieliepinruhuishupi,yeyiweiliehuozhegerensuoyou。danshi,shouliegongjuhebufenshouliechanpindesiyouzhi,haimeiyoushigetijiatingxingchengwanquandulidejingjidanwei,jiatinggongshezailiequewenkerendeshengchanheshenghuozhongrengqizhezhudaozuoyong。

xinzhongguochengliqian,zaimuqudeewenkerendangzhong,haicunzaizhe“nimoer”zheizhongshengchanzuzhi。suirangetixiaojiatingyichengweimuquewenkerenshehuijingjidejibendanwei,danshiyijiayihudeshengchanyouchangchangshoudaoshengchanliheshengchanziliaofangmiandejuxian,yushiyixieyouxueyuanguanxidejiatingchuyuhuzhuhezuodexuyaoerzuheqilai,zaifangmuhuogengzhongshaoliangtudishi,dajiagongtonglaodong,gongtongxiangyongshouhuowu,zaishenghuoshangyeshihuxiangbangzhu,huxiangzhaogu,zheijiushi“nimoer”。youcikejian,“nimoer”zuoweiewenkerenyixueyuanguanxiweiniudaierzuchengdeyoumushengchandanwei,shijishangshiyuanshishehuishizugongsheshiqishengchanzuzhixingshidecanliu。

时时彩平台注册weizaiheilongjiangzhongshangyouyibeideguangdadiqujianliqigonggudetongzhi,huangtaijiyuchongdesinianzhiwunian(1639—1640)fadonglezhengfusuolunbudezhanzheng,zuizhongtongyilesuolunzhubu,paijunduizaiheilongjiangbeiandesuoluncuntunzhushou,jiangewenkebuluoyishizuweidanweibianchengzuo,renmingshizuqiuzhangweizhangjing(zuoling),bingguidinglesuolunbuzhonganshixiangshengjingnagongdeyiwu。meigeewenkenanding,douyaojiaonadiaopiyizhangzuoweigongfu。tongguozheiyixiliedecuoshi,qingchaozaiheilongjiangyibeisuolunbudeguangdadiqujianliqiyouxiaodetongzhi。

shunzhinianjian,ewenkerennanqiandaonenjiangliuyu,lifanyuanrenmingdaruhanbule、zhamusudengrenweishouling,shouyufudoutongyinxin,zhijieguanxiaewenkedengzushiyi。yongzhengshinian(1732),qingzhengfujiangbuteha(manyu,yiweidasheng)de5geaba(weichang)he3gezhalan(manyu,lianhuoduizhiyi)dedawoer、ewenke、elunchunzhuangdingguidingleqise,bianchenglebutehabaqi。

baqishijunzhengheyi、bingminheyidezuzhi,qisheqizhang(xieling,zhengsanpin),xiashezuoling(youjiaoniuludahuozhangjing,zhengsipin)、xiaoqixiao(hapeng,zhengliupin)helingcuidengguanzhi。bianrubaqideewenkezuzhuangdingduiqingchaochengdanzhegongnadiaopi、xunbianhefubingyideyiwu。zaipingshi,tamensanguitianye,zimoushengji,yuchunqiuliangjijihezaiyiqijinxing“chunqiuhuicao”jijunshixunlian。meinianhaiyaodaobianjingdiquxuncha。zaizhanshi,zeyaopijiadangcha,congjunruwu,weiqingzhengfunanzhengbeizhan。youqingyidai,baokuoewenke、dawoer、elunchunzaineidebaqisuolunguanbingsuyixiaoyongshanzhan、jingqishansheerzhucheng,henduoewenkezujianglingyinzhangongxianheerlvbeizhuosheng,ru,shoucanzandachen、neidachen、shiweineidachen、doutongdengshizhidehailancha,cengrenzhenghuangqidoutongdeboerbencha,cengrenfuzhoujiangjun、qinchadachendemutushanyijihangzhoujiangjunmingxingdeng。

风俗文化:

xinzhongguochengliqian,youyujuzhudiqudefensanhegediquzirantiaojiandebutong,ewenkezudeshehuijingjifazhancunzaizhehendadebupinghengxing。jujuzaiewenkezuzizhiqihechenbaerhuqideewenkezuzhanbenzurenkoudeyibanyishang,zhuyaocongshichumuye。juzhuzaizhalantunshi、arongqi、molidawadawoerzuzizhiqidengdideewenkezu,congshibannongbanlie;heilongjiangshengnehedeewenkezucongshinongyeshengchan;genheshideshaoshuewenkezucongshishoulie。yinweitamenshoulieshishiyongxunlu,changbeichengzuo“shiyongxunludeewenkeren”。

ewenkezuzizhiqihechenbaerhuqideewenkeren,zhumenggubao,guoyoumushenghuo。tamenshuxigezhongshengchudexixinghemucaodexingzhi。dangmurenxuanzemuchangshi,zhiyaowendaocaoweihuochangyixia,jiunengpanduanmucaodeyingyangjiazhiruhe。zaigaoshanshangtuoxiamaozi,keyiceliangchufengdeqiangdu。youxiudemurendouzhidaojishizhongcaodemingchengheyingyangjiazhi,yijishihenazhongshengchudeweikou。

时时彩平台注册muminbulunnannv,yibancongliuqisuikaishibangzhufumukanguanniudu,nvhaicong10suikaishigenmuqinxuejiniunai。ruguonvhaiziguole10suihaibuhuijinai,jiuhuishourenjixiao。nanhai7suikaishixueqima,zuichuhefuxiongqiyipima,huozhebeixiaoanqilaoshima。nanhaixuehuiqimahoujiukeyicanjiasaima,zaidayixiejiuyaoxuexitaoma、xunmadejishu。

huoyuezaigenheshiaoluguyayuanshimilinzhongdelingyibufenewenkeren,congshiyouliehesiyangxunlu。yigeyouxiudelieren,juyoujingxideguanchali,zaidasenlinzhong,tamenshuxishanlinxianglejiezijideshouxinyiyang。tamencongshidaideshoulieshengchanzhongjileilefengfudejingyan,duiyeshoudexixingshifenshuxi。lierendeshilihetingliyehenlingmin,nenggouzhunquezhangwofengxiang。zaixiadongjijieli,tamennengbianbiechuyeshoudezongjishixindehaishijiude,shijingzoude,haishiziyouzoude,shenzhishigonghaishimu。haizimenzaiqibasuishi,laolierensuojiangdeyingxionggushijiuchengletamenweizaigouhuopangshoudaodediyikejiaoyu。haizimenchengqunbisaisheji、daba,zaidayixie,jiukaishiduanlianshenti,huxiangbisaitiaogao、tiaoyuan、chenggantiaodengyundong。tebieshimeifengeryuejian,renmendawanhuishushi,qingnianhehaizimendouchuanshanghuaxueban,youbuluotourenzhuchizhuangyanlongzhongdehuaxuebisai,huaxuehaodededaojiangli。yonggandeewenkelierenjiushizaizheiyangwanqiangdeduanlianzhongchengzhangqilaide。youyucongxiaojiujinxingshouliejinengxunlian,ewenkerendeshouliejishushifeichanggaode。zaiewenkerenzhongliuchuanzhezheiyangyijuhua: “danglieshoudeqiangxiangledeshihou,nimenjiuzhunbeiguoba,tayidinghuidaihuiroulai!”haolieshouchumenbingbuduodaizidan,zhidaijike,yiweizhezhiyaoyouyeshou,tajiuzhunhuidahuijigelai。

zaizhoubiannongyeminzudeyingxiangxia,fenbuyunenjiangliuyudeewenkeren,zaozai19shijizhongyejiukaishicongshinongyeshengchan。tamenyonghuoshaodiaohuangdishangdeyecaoheguanmu,ranhouqingchudiaozawu,yongmahuoniulazhelizhangkaikenchunongtian,zhongzhijizi、qiaomai、yanmai、xiaomai、mizi、dadoudengnongzuowu。

youyushengchanfangshidebutonghejuzhudidefensan,gediewenkezudechuantongfushixisugeyoutedian。liequewenkezudechuantongfushi,jibenshangyishoupiyifuweizhu;congshichumuyedeewenkezu,tongchangyongyangpizuoyifu。

时时彩平台注册liequewenkezudepizhuang,juyouhenqiangdejijiexing,tamengenjuqihouhejijiedebianhuagenghuanbutongzhongleidefuzhuangxiemao。zaimanzhanghanlengdedongji,renmenduocaiyongdongjiliequdeshoupizuofuzhuangxiemao。liru,nanrenmendongjichangchuandepaopiao(nandesuen),jiushiyongdongjidepaopizhizuode。cishideshoupi,pibanhouzhong,rongmaojiaomi,kanghanxingnenghaoqiebuyidiaomao。zaichunqiuliangji,renmenyongduanmaobopizuoyifu。xiajichuandepaopiyifu(halami),tongchangyongguangbanmeimaodeshoupizhizuo。xiashenchuanpaopikuzi(nandeeke)huoanpikuzi(yeshentamu)。

时时彩平台注册muquewenkerendechuantongfushi,tongchangyongyangpizhizuo,ruyangpidayi(suwen)、duanpiyi(hurumu)、yangpiku(suwei)、yangpiwazi(daoketaoen)deng。qizhong,zuiweiguizhongdedangshuyanggaopiao(hubuqisuwen),zheishirenmenfengnianguojie、fangqinhuiyoushichuandelifu。yijianchengrenchuandeyanggaopiao,tongchangyaoyong30duozhangyanggaopi,waimianyongbuhuochouduanzuomian,erqiefengzhiqilaifeishifeili。

时时彩平台注册ewenkerenchuandexuezi,zhongleihenduo。youyongpaotuipizuodexuezi(qihami)、antuipizuodexuezi(hemuchure)yijiyongniupi、yangpihemapizuodepixue(wente)。youyushouzhoubiannongyeminzudeyingxiang,ewenkerenyekaishiyongbuzuoxiehuoxuezi。

ewenkezudemaozi,yipaotoupimao(mietaawen)zuifuminzutese。tebieshizaishoulieshidaishangyongwanzhengdepaotoupizuodemaozi,yuanyuandikanshangquxiangpaoziyiyang,rongyijiyeshouzaochengcuojue,bianyushoulie。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochenglihou,suizhejingjidefazhanheduiwaishishicaipingtaizhucedejiaqiang,gezhongshishangfuzhuangchuanruewenkezujuzhuqu,gaibianleewenkezufushixisudemianmao。zaiyixiepianyuandemuquhuoliequ,renmenrengrankeyikandaoewenkerenchuanzheminzufuzhuangxinqinlaozuodeshenying。zaifangqinhuiyou、jubanhunli、fengnianguojiehejuxingzhongdahuodongshi,ewenkerenrengranxihuanchuanminzufushi。jinru21shijiyilai,ewenkerenduoxihuanchuanzhongshanzhuang、bianzhuang、xiuxianzhuangyijixiandaiyiqundengshishangfuzhuang。zhiyouzaiminzujieri、zhongdahuodongyijibianyuandemuquhuolinqu,caiyougebieewenkezufunvchuanzheminzufushi。

aoluguyaewenkerenzaixinzhongguochengliqianshangbaochizhechuantongdeyulieshengchan,yinciqiyinshiwenhuajuyounongyudeyuliewenhuaqixi。tamenyipaozi、lu、an、yezhudengshouliechanpinweizhuyaoderoushilaiyuan,xihuanheyongxunlunaizuodenaicha,xihuanchi“lieba”(mianbao)。muqudeewenkerenyechimimianshipinhegezhongshanzhenyewei,danshisuozhanbizhongjiaoxiao。qizhuyaodeshipinshiniuyangrouhenaiyou、naipizi、naigan、naidoufudengnaizhipin。yongchaye、jizimihuochaomizuodenaicha,shijiajiabibeideyinpin。nongqudeewenkerenyimimianweizhushi,yidoujiao、baicai、tudou、luobudengshucaihegezhonggeyangdeyecaiweifushi。

时时彩平台注册gediewenkerendechuantongzhufangjuyouhendadechayi,nongqudeewenkerenzhucaofanghuozhuanfang,muqudeewenkerenzhumenggubao,liequdeewenkerenzhu“cuoluozi”。qizhong,zuiweigulaodedangshu“cuoluozi”。

aoluguyadeewenkerenzhongnianzhuisuizheyeshoudezuji,ganzhexunluqun,youdangzaiyuanshisenlinzhong,guozhepiaobobudingdeshenghuo。tamenmeiyougudingdezhuchu,zhuzheyizhongfeichangjiandandezhangpeng——“cuoluozi”,ewenkeyujiao“xianrenzhu”。tagaoyuesansimi,zhijingsiwumizuoyou,yong25zhi30genluoyesonggandaqisanxingzhijia,xiatianyihuashupizuogai,dongtianyongmilupiweiqilai。tamenzaixiatianheqiutianshi,yichuzuiduozhu10tian;dongtianliehuishushi,ersantianjiubanyicijia。banjiaxianshinanrendaoxindidianba“xianrenzhu”jiazidahao,suihoufunvyongxunlubayongjutuoyundaoxindidian。

“kaolaobao”shiliequewenkerendazaishuganshangdecangfang,tongchangjianyushenshanmilinzhizhong,zhuyaoyongyucunfangshiwu、pizhangdengrichangshenghuoyongpin。“kaolaobao”zheizhongjianzhuxingshitonghezhezude“taketu”、elunchunzude“aolun”、dawoerzude“taritegeri”yiyang,junshiyuangushiqirenleichaojudeyicun。

ewenkezuchuantongdejiaotonggongju,youxunlu、huaxueban、huapichuan、pali、mahedalunchedeng。ewenkerensiyangxunlujuyouyoujiudelishi,tamenbaxunlujiao“elun”。xunlutoushangshengzhangzhedarongjiao,fenzhihenduo,tizhuangdekezai90jin。xunlushiheshenghuozaihanlengdidai,shanyuzaizhaozehuoshenxuezhongxingzou,suyou“linhaizhizhou”demeiyu。dongjimeitiankexing20duogongli,xiajirixing15gongli。taixianleizhiwushixunludezhuyaosiliao。xunluchubangzhuzhurenbanjiawai,haijingchangtizhurentuoyunliehuowuyijicongshichangshangtizhurenbagoumaideriyongpintuohui。

zaizhetianbiridedaxinganlingli,ewenkelieminbeizheqiang、daizheliequanheyeshouzhouxuan。tebieshidongtian,zaidaxueshanshang,meigeewenkelierendouchuanshanghuaxueban,xiangxiaoyanyiyangfeibenzaishanshang,zhuijizhegezhongyeshou。

时时彩平台注册ewenkerendehuaxuebanshiyongqingqiaojianshidesongmubanzhichengde,qikuanyue20limi,houyue3limi,zhangyue1.5mi,qianduanlvechengjianqiao。weileshihuaxuebanbushoumosun、tigaohuaxingsuduyijijianqingshangposhidedaotuili,tongchangyaoyongzongjianchaohoudeanpitiebaohuaxuebandedimian。huaxuebanshirenmenchuanyuelinhaixueyuanchuandixinxi、yunsonghuowudejiaotonggongju,yeshidujuminzutesedetiyubisaiyongju。meiniandongjijiangxueyihou,ewenkerendouyaoliyonghuaxuebanjuxinghuaxuebisai。youcikejian,huaxuebanzaigudaiewenkezulishihewenhuazhongcengfahuiguozhongyaozuoyong。

时时彩平台注册ewenkezujuzhudediqu,heliuzhongduo,huzhaomibu,yinciqishuishangjiaotonggongjuzhongleijiaoduo,youhuapichuan、dumuzhouhemuchuandeng。huapichuanshidongbeishaoshuminzupubianshiyongdeyizhongshuishangjiaotonggongju。zheizhongchuanqucaifangbian,zhizuojianyi,chuanshenjiaoqing,buyongshiyirenjikefuzaierqu。huapichuanjikeyiyonglaichengrenhuozaiwu,yekeyiyongzuolinjiangbuyu;jishiyizhongshuishangjiaotonggongju,yeshiewenkerendaliebuyushideshengchangongju。

时时彩平台注册ewenkezushiyigehaokedeminzu,reqing、chengkendizhaodaikerenshiewenkerendexiguan。tamenrenweikerenlaidaojialishidaxishi。zaimuqu,duikerenjingyan、jingnaichahechishoubaroushiputongdelijie。zailiequ,lieminzeyixunlunaihelu、andexiongkourou、jigurou、feichang、anbiroudengzhaodaikerenweizuishangpin。lieminzaisenlincangkuzhongfangzheshipin、yifu、yongjudeng,congbushangsuo,qitalierenruguotuzhongduanleliang,keyidaorenheyigecangkuliququ,buyidingqudezhurendetongyi,shihouzaishichangshangyujianzhurenrushuguihaijike。

时时彩平台注册ewenkezudehunyinshiyifuyiqizhi。xinzhongguochengliqianshangbaoliuzheyangedezuwaihundetedian,hunyindedijiezhinengzaibutongshizuzhijianjinxing,tongyishizuneijinzhitonghun,weifanzheiyiyuanzedeyaoshoudaoxiguanfadezhicai。zaiewenkezudechuantonghunyinxisuzhong,cunzaizhezaohundexianxiang。danghaizimenzaihenxiaoshijiuyoufumuzuozhudinghun,shenzhizhifuweihun。nanhaiqibasuibianqushiqibasuideqizi,shenzhiyoudeqizibaozhezhangfuchuanmen,zheizhong“xiaonvxu”hunjiqingniannannvdailaijidadetongku。

zaichenbaerhuqideewenkerenzhong,haicunzaizhe“taohun”xingshideziyouhun。qingniannannvlianaideshuangfangshuotuozhihou,chubujuedingjiehunriqi,nandehuijiagaosufumu;nanfangdefumushouxianbeizhenvfangjianliyigexin“menggubao”,lingzaibaopangzaigaiyige“cuoluozi”,zhaoyilaonianfunvzailimiandengzhe。qingniannannvzaiqianyitianyuehaodidian,yejiandanggouyijiaoshi,guniangjiutoutouzouchumenggubaohenanrenqimataopao。liangrenlaidaonanfangdagaidecuoluozili,youlaotaitaibaguniangdebagenxiaobiangaishuchenglianggenfabianjiusuanhefale。tianliangqian,errendaofumubaolijibaihuohezuxianshen。tongshi,nanfangyaopailianggerendaonvfangjia,zainvfangdezushenqianxianshang“hada”,bingkoutou。nvfangyikannverbuzaile,youlailelianggeren,bianzhidaoyidingchushile,tamenshengqidizuozaineili,bingshuoqihua。nanfangdelairenjinvfangfumuzhenjiu,tamenbulibukan,zheishinanfanglairenyaoshefashuofunvfangfumu。zaidiercizhenjiushi,nvfangfumujiuhele,biaoshitongyi。zheishi,nanfangsuoyoudezuren、linjudoulaizhuhe,zaixinmenggubaoli,yougezhuanmenzhufudelaotou,zuozaixibian,toushanghuojianshangfangyi“hada”,xianshixinlangxinniangjishizuzuxiankoutou,zaijihuoshenkoutou,zaijifumukoutou。ranhou,zaiyangyanhui,changgetiaowu。

ewenkezuchuantongdesangzangfangshi,zuichushitianzang(youchengweishuzanghuofengzang)。rensiyihou,yonghuashupi、luweihuocaoxijiangshitibaoguoqilai,fangdaoshenshanmilinzhizhongdedashushang。duiyuyinnanchanhuodechuanranbingerside,tongchangcaiyonghuozang。houlai,youyushoulinjinqitaminzuhezongjiaodeyingxiang,ewenkerenkaishishixingtuzang,qisangzangyishiyebianderiyifuza,baokuochuanshouyi、shaoxiangshanggong、dianzhangmingdeng、fenshaozhibo、tingshishouling、zejichubin、zhuangguanruliandeng。anzhaochuantongguannian,ewenkerenrenweirenshiyoulinghunde,yinciduisizhedejidianshifenzhongshi。fengnianguojie,renmendouyaolaidaosizhedefenqianshaozhi、gongfengshipin,yibiaohuainianhejisizhiyi。

ewenkezuyoubushaobenminzudechuantongjieri。aobaohuishiewenkezudeshengdajieri,taqiyuanyuewenkerendui“aobao”dejisihuodong。zaiguoqu,meige“hala”douyouzijidelingdihe“aobao”,tongyi“hala”derenzaimeinianwuyuehuijizaiyiqi,gongtongjisibenshizude“aobao”。zaijisiaobaoshi,yaozaishaniuyangdengzuoweijipin,mudeshiqiqiufengdiaoyushun、sijipingandehaoniancheng。meiciaobaohuishangdouyaojuxingsaima、shuaijiaodengyulehuodong。

时时彩平台注册“mikuole”shimolegeerheliuyuewenkerendejieri。guangdamuminanchuantongxiguan,zaimeinianwuyuehuandu“mikuole”jieyiqingzhumuyefengshou。zheishiewenkerenjisuanyinianzhizhongshengchuyouzengjialeduoshaoderizi。

meinianwuyuexiaxun,caoyuanshanglvcaobianye,huaxiangsiyi。renmendouchuanshangmeilierxianyandefuzhuang,yuanjindeqinqidouhuijizaiyiqi,jishengchuqushi、luoyin。guniangmenchuanzhegaopidetongqun,shuangshoumangliuzhezhuayanggao。xiaohuozimenjiaojiandiqishangzuihaode“ganma”,huiwuzhetaomagan,zhuitaoliema。laomurenweileduanlianqingnianren,changchangrangqingnianrentaoma,meidangtaozhuliemadeshihou,qiangzhuangdeqishoumenyiyongershang,youdetiaoshangmabei,youdelazhumawei,youdeniejinmaer,shunjianbamashuaidaozaidi,yushijiujianzong,jianmawei,ruguozheipimaganghao4sui,neijiuzaitunbudashangluoyin,yizuobiaozhi。ruguobushibeixuanweizhonggongmadehua,shouyihaijitaqushi。zheishiyizhongfeichangjinzhangeryouqudelaodong,yeshimuminhuxiangbiwu,daxianqijidehaojihui。ranhou,meijiadouzaimenggubaolizhunbeishipinhemeijiu、shoubarou,qingsuoyoucanjiashengchanhuodongderenfuyan。kerenmenzaizheiyijiachiwanzaidaolingyijiachi,feichangrenao。

时时彩平台注册zaizhoubianminzudeyingxiangxia,ewenkezuyekaishiguo“anie”(chunjie)、“hanxi”(qingmingjie)heduanwujiedengjieri,zheishideewenkezudesuishifengsuwenhuagengjiafengfuduocai。

时时彩平台注册ewenkezushiyigenenggeshanwudeminzu,youhenduominzutediannongyudechuantongwudao。“nurijile”wushiewenkezudeyizhongchuantongminjianwudaoxingshi,meidangfengnianguojie、jubanhunli、yanqingbinkehuoxiqingfengshouzhishi,renmenchangchangtiaoqihuanlede“nurijile”wu,yibiaodaqixiyuezhiqing。

时时彩平台注册“nurijile”wuyibanyoufunvtiao,meiyouleqibanzou,zhishitiaowuderenzuilifachu“ahanbai”、“zhehuzhe”、“zhahai、zhahai”dengshengyin。tiaowumeizuerzhisiren,yimianchang“ahanbai”,yimianliangshouzuoyoushangxiabaidong,qichudongzuohenqing,jiermianduimian,shuangshouqianhoubaidong,bingzuoquxizhuang。zheizhongwudaobiaoxianlenong、muqushenghuodetezheng,dongzuoyoumei,jiezouxingqiang,jiaodedongzuogouchengletadetedian。

“aidahaxileng”wu(yezhubodouwu)shibiaoxianlierenmofangyezhujiaopeishi,xianghudajianuhoudewudao,youlianggerentiao,tiaowuzhedouchuanzhemaochaowaidepaopiyifu,huazhuangchenglianggeyezhudexingxiang,lianshangmoshangbaifen,errenlvexiangqianqingxie,liangshoufangzaibeihou,yongjianhuxiangzhuang,zuilibuduanfachu“hou!hou!”deshengyin。

ewenkezudewuhuiduozaiwanjianjuxing,renmenzaikuankuopingtandekongdishangranqiyiduigouhuo,tiaowuzheyanzhehuoduiweichengyuanquan,shoulazheshouzizuoxiangyouzhuandong,zaigezaiwu。wudaochanggeshi,youyirenlingchang,zhongrenhechang。

ewenkezudeminjianwudaohaofang、poshi,chongfenbiaoxianleewenkezurenminshuanglang、yonggandexinggeheleguanxiangshangdeqizhi。tebieshijiaobudedongzuojiweidute,gangjianyouli,jiezouxinghenqiang。

ewenkezumingefuyushenghuoqixi。youougeshengchanlaodongde,ru《liege》、《muge》;youguanyuaiqinghunyinde,ru《weishenmebatajiajiwo》;yougesongjiaxiangde,ru《neikuleng》、《meilidehuihe,wodejiaxiang》。ciwai,haiyoudaliangmiaoshuminzulishi、fanyingrichangshenghuodeminge。ewenkezumingebujinticaiguangfan,neirongfengfu,erqieqiqudiaominglanghuankuai,youyangdongting,fuyoucaoyuanhesenlinqixi,dujufengge。

ewenkezusuiranmeiyoubenminzudewenzi,queyouzhejiweifengfudeminjianwenxuezuopin,baokuoshenhua、chuanshuo、gushi、geyao、yanyu、miyudeng。zheixieminjianwenxuezuopinyuyanzhipo,liuchuanhenguang。

zaoxingyishuyoucixiu、diaoke、huihuaheyanhuadeng。ewenkezuxihuanzaigezhongyongjuqiminshanghuodiao、huoxiu、huohuishanggezhongtuanhuawen,bingshanyuyonghuashupidengzuoyuanliao,ke、jianchenggezhongqinshouzuoertongwanju。lingwai,zaiheilongjiangshangyouyouzhiliuemuerheshangyuankebohedeyuantouzhiyi——jiaolaogedaohepandeshanyanjianheeergunaheyouzhiliuaniangnixiaohedexuanyashang,faxianleliangchuewenkerendeyanhua。zheiliangchuyanhuayirenwuhedongwuweizhu,yishudizaixianleewenkerendeshoulieshenghuo。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochengliqian,ewenkezujuedabufenxinyangsamanjiao,muqudeewenkerentongshiyexinzangchuanfojiao,juzhuzaichenbaerhu、aoluguyadengdideewenkerenzhongyeyougebiexindongzhengjiaode。

时时彩平台注册samanjiaoshiyizhongwanwuyoulingdeyuanshizongjiao,youdongwuchongbai、tutengchongbaihezuxianchongbai。zaiyouliehedingjushouliedeewenkerenzhonghaicancunzheduixiongdechongbai。tamenliedaoxiongzhihou,youyixiliechongbaiyishihejinji。jiangxiongdetouhegu、wuzangdengyonghuashutiaohuogancaobaohaoguazaishushang,jinxingfengzang,bingqiejingyan、koutou、zhuangkudeng。lingwai,zaichenbaerhuqideewenkerenzhong,meigeshizudouyiyizhongniaozuoweitutengbiaozhi,rutiane、shuiyadeng。tamenduizijishizudetutengniaofeichangzunjing,dangtutengniaocongtoushangfeiguoshi,yaoxiangkongzhongsayixieniunai,biaoshizunjing。jueduijinzhishahaihuosunhaitutengniaodexingwei。

时时彩平台注册ewenkezumeiyigeshizudouyouyigewushi——saman。tamenyoufayi、famao、shengudeng。zaishehuishangyoujiaogaoweixin。eergunaqi(jingenheshi)ewenkerendeshizuqiuzhanghuozuzhangduoyousamanjianren。yiqieguishen、jixionghejibingdelaiyuandouyousamanjieshi,danmeiyouzhiyesaman,tiaoshenganguiyewubaochou。zaijinrufengjianshehuidediqu,samansuiwuteshudiwei,danyoushiliyongrenmenduitadexinyang,lvequcaiwu。

发展现状:

youyuqingzhengfudepinfanzhengdiao、minguoshiqidejunfatongzhiheriweishiqicankudezhimintongzhi,haocheng“suolunjinglv”deewenkezu,chuxianlerenkoujijuxiajiangdequshi,yichuyuminzuweiwangdejingdi。xinzhongguodechengli,shiewenkezuzhonghuoxinsheng,renkouyouhuifuhefazhanqilai,ewenkezucongcijinrudaoxingwangfadadelishishiqi。jingguowushiduoniandefazhan,ewenkezudezhengzhi、jingji、shehui、wenhuajiaoyu、yiliaoweisheng、wenxueyishudenggexiangshiyexunsufazhanqilai,qudelejushizhumudelishichengjiu。

zhengzhishangdangjiazuozhu,zizhiquanlidedaobaozhang。1958nian,chenglileewenkezuzizhiqi,biaozhizheewenkezushixianleminzuzizhi、minzupingdengdeyuanwang。neimengguzizhiquhulunbeiershishiewenkezudejujuqu,gongyouewenkezurenkou22808ren,zhanewenkezuzongrenkoude86.76%。muqian,hulunbeiershigongyou8geewenkezuminzuxiang(sumu): arongqichabaqiewenkeminzuxiang、yinhedawoerewenkeminzuxiang、deliqierewenkezuminzuxiang,molidawadawoerzuzizhiqibayanewenkeminzuxiang、dulaerminzuxiang,genheshiaoluguyaewenkezuminzuxiang,zhalantunshisamajieewenkeminzuxiang,chenbaerhuqiewenkezusumu。ciwai,haiyouheilongjiangshengneheshixingwangewenkeminzuxiang。suizhedangheguojiademinzuzizhizhengcedeluoshi,ewenkezuminzuganbuduiwuxunsuchengzhangzhuangda。jianqishi,ewenkezuganbuyou40ren,yuezhanganbuzongshude8.8%。1987nian,quanqiyouganbu2151ren,qizhongewenkezuganbuyou356ren,yuezhanganbuzongshude16.5%,gaoyurenkousuozhanbilide9.7%。congjueduishushangkan,tong1958nianxiangbi,ewenkezuganbuzengzhang8.9bei,erquanqiganbuzhizengzhang4.5bei。ewenkezuganbuduiwudezhuangda,weibaozhangewenkezurenmindezizhiquanlidiandinglexionghoudejichu。tongshi,zaiquanguorenmindaibiaodahui、quanguozhengxiehuiyiyijisuozaishengqurenda、zhengxiedengdouyouewenkezudaibiao。

xiandaigongyezhubujianli。zhangqiyilai,ewenkezushizhongyanxi“zhushuicaoerju”deshengchanshenghuofangshi。zhidaoewenkezuzizhiqidengzizhijigoujianlihou,tamencaizhujianzoushangle“yimuweizhu,nongye、bannongbanlie、xunlusiyang、difanggongyehexiangzhenqiye”duoyebingju、duoyuanfazhandejingjizhenxingzhilu,xingchengletesexianmingdejingjifazhanleixing。xinzhongguochengliqian,ewenkezizhiqijihumeiyouxiandaigongye。gaigekaifangyihou,difanggongyehexiangzhenqiyecaiyousuofazhan,xiangjichenglilemeikuang、maofang、yinshuadenggongyeqiye。2005nian,quanqishixiandiqushengchanzongzhi27.4yiyuan,quanqishixiandiyi、er、sanchanyexiediaofazhan。2003nian9yue28ri,zaidanghezhengfudeqinqieguanhuaixia,zhongguozuihouyigeshouliebuluozouchushanlin,bandaogenheshijiaodeaoxiangxincundingju。zuoweiquanguoweiyi、yazhouzuidadexunlusiyangjidi,aoluguyaewenkeminzuxiangyifangmiandalidazao“xunluzhixiang”dedutepinpai,nulifazhanxunlusiyangyeheluchanpinjiagongye,kaibanleluchanpinjiagongchanghezibujiuchang;lingyifangmian,tamenjieheziyuanyoushi,weirao“yiyeweizhu、duozhongjingying”defazhanmubiao,jinyibutuokuanzhifumenlu,jijifazhanyisenlinguanguang、tanxian、monishoulie、minsubiaoyanhelulaxueqiaoweineirongdeteselvyouye,congerweiaoluguyaewenkeminzuxiangjingjidetengfeitigonglexindezengzhangdian。

时时彩平台注册xiandaichumuyefazhanxunsu。chumuyeshiewenkerendechuantongchanyezhiyi,shenghuozaiewenkezuzizhiqi、chenbaerhuqideewenkerenduobamuyezuoweizhuye。danghezhengfuyinshilidao,caiqudaikuanfuchihemianzhengshengchushuidengduoxiangzhichigulizhengce,jidadicujinleewenkezuchumujingjidefazhan。tebieshigaigekaifangyilai,zhengfuguangfantuixingmuyeshengchanzerenzhi,jiangchuqunzhejiachengbaodaohu,jinyibudiaodongleewenkerendesiyangjijixing。ju2005nian6yuemotongji,ewenkeqiquanqishengchuzongtoushushoucitupobaiwandaguan,dadao1028232tou(zhi),yu1949nian6.6wantouxiangbi,zengzhangle16bei。1984nian,ewenkeqinianchannailianggaoda1.56wandun,chengweineimengguzizhiqudiyigejiaoshouxiannaiguowandundeqixian。2005nian,gaiqinainiujingjijixubaochiqiangjingfazhanshitou,xiannaichanliangchuangjiludidadao15wandun。shenghuozaiaoluguyaewenkeminzuxiangdeewenkerenyixunlusiyangyeweizhu。danghezhengfucengtourudaliangrenli、wulihecaili,yindaohebangzhuewenkerensiyangxunlu。2003nian,ewenkelieminxiangshishizhengtishengtaiyiminzhihou,genheshizhengfuzaigaishanlieminshengchanshenghuojichutiaojiandetongshi,dalifuchilieminsiyangxunlu,tongshijiadaduixunlushengcunzhuangtaidejiankonglidu,weilieminxuanzediyifenghoudemudian,zhengfuchuziweilieminmudiangoumaisiliao,bingkaizhanzhongqunjiandezhonggongluyoushenglietaidiaoji,xunluzhongqundefanyulvhechenghuolvbuduantigao。

时时彩平台注册nongyejingjishengjihuandai。nongyetongyangshiewenkerencongshidechuantongchanyezhiyi,heilongjiangshengneheshidexingwangewenkeminzuxiang、neimengguzizhiqumolidawadawoerzuzizhiqidedulaerdengduogeewenkeminzuxiangzhuyaoyinongyeshengchanweizhu。gaigekaifangyilai,suizhejiatinglianchanchengbaozerenzhideshixing,xingwangdengduogeewenkezuminzuxiangdenongyejingjifazhanjiaokuai,gengdimianjiyousuokuoda,gengzuojishuhejixiehuashuipingyouhendatigao,liangshichanliangyoumingxianzengjia。tamenyizhongzhiyumi、dadouweizhu,jianhuozhongzhitiancai、malingshu、kuihuadengjingjizuowu。dao2004nian,xingwangewenkeminzuxianggengzhongtudi19800gongqing,shengchanliangshi95644dun,nongyeshourushixian9188wanyuan,zhangaixiangzongshourude71.45%。quanxiangyongyounongyongqiche、gezhongxinghaotuolaji、chayangji、shougejideng816duotai(jian),nongyexiandaihua、jixiehuachengdumingxiantigao。

时时彩平台注册minzuwenhuadedaojichenghefazhan。zaixinzhongguochenglizhihoudehenduanshijiannei,yiewenkeqiweizhongxin,luxujianlibingwanshanlewenhuaguan、tushuguan、bowuguan、wulanmuqi、xinhuashudian、dianyingfangyinggongsi、yingjuyuan、dianyingduiyijixiangwenhuazhandengshishicaipingtaizhuce。ewenkezuqunzhongdeyeyuwenhuashenghuocongcijinruleyigexindefazhanjieduan。qiwenhuaguanchongfenfahuizishendewenhuapingtaizuoyong,meiniandouduocijubanmeishu、shufa、sheying、yinlehewenxuedengfangmiandepeixunban,peiyangleyidapijuyouyishutianfudewenyiguganheyeyuzuozheduiwu,weitamenrihouchengmingchengcaidiandinglejichu。qitushuguanshijianyu1978nian,dao1990nianzangshuliangyijingdadao2.6wance,dingyuebaokan360duozhong。weifangbianduzhejieyue,tamenzaimuqujianli16getushuliutongzhan,shoudaoguangdaduzhedehuanying。qixinhuashudiangenjumuqutedian,caiquliudongshoushudefangshi,jiejuequnzhonggoushunanwenti,nianfaxingtushujishiwance;qibowuguanmuqianyiyou5jia,qizhongqijijiewenkebowuguan1jia,sumujibowuguan4jia。ewenkebowuguanshijianyu1998nian,shiwoguodiyigezhuanmenzhanshiewenkezuzhengzhi、jingji、lishi、wenhua、minsudengweiyitidezonghexingbowuguan,xianzaiyijingchengweilejieminzulishi、hongyangaiguozhuyihezengjinminzutuanjiedezhongyaozhendi。qiwulanmuqijingchangshenrumuqu,weigezuqunzhongchuangzuobiaoyanle《kuailedeewenkeqingnian》、《ewenkerenyongyuangenzhegongchandang》dengougegongchandang、zanmeixinshenghuodewudaohuogequ。qizhong,《dangdeenqing》he《ewenkehunli》dengzuopinduocishoudaoguojiaheneimengguzizhiqudebiaozhanghejiangli。qiwenhuaxuanchuanbumenhaijijijubangezhongxingshidewenyihuodonghewenhuaxiaxianghuodong,chenggongchengbanleewenke、elunchun、dawoer“sanshao”minzulianyihuijijiniansuolunbuzhufanghulunbeier270zhounianxueshuyantaohuihe“aobaoxianghuimingedasai”deng。ciwai,guojiazuzhizhuanjiafajuehezhenglileewenkezudechuantongwenxuezuopin,xianhouchubanle《ewenkezuminge》、《ewenkeminjiangushixuan》、《ewenkeminjiangushi》、《ewenkeminsujiwenhuayishuzhanlanziliaoxuanbian》dengshuji。

minzujiaoyushixianjudafeiyue。xinzhongguojianlihou,danghezhengfujijizaiewenkezuqunzhongjujiquchuangbanxuexiao。dao1958nian,ewenkezuzizhiqiyouxiaoxue9suo,zaixiaoxueshengyou956ren,qizhongewenkezuxueshengyou290ren;jiaoshi38ren,qizhongewenkezujiaoshiyou5ren。2005nian,ewenkezuzizhiqiyougeleixuexiao38suo,qizhongxiaoxue20suo、putongzhongxue16suo、zhiyezhongxue2suo,zaixiaosheng18648ren,jiaozhigong2071ren。judiwuciquanguorenkoupucha,ewenkezu6suiyishangpingjunshoujiaoyunianxianda8.53。muqian,ewenkezumeiwanrenzhongdaxuewenhuachengdusuozhanbiliyijingchaoguoquanguopingjunshuipingjinyibei,chedigaibianlexinzhongguochengliqianquanminzujibenshangshiwenmangdeyuanshiluohouzhuangtai,youxuduorenchengweilejiaoshou、gongchengshi、yishujia、zuojiadeng。

时时彩平台注册minzuyiliaoweishengshiyecongwudaoyou。jiefangqian,ewenkezudiquwuyiwuyao,xingbing、feibingdengchuanranbingmanyan。jiefanghou,yiliaoweishengjigouzhubujianli,haijianlilemengyiweishengsuo,xingbing、jiehebing、keshanbingdengjibendedaokongzhi。2005nian,ewenkezuzizhiqiyongyougeleiweishengjigou76ge(hangeti),bingchuang697zhang,youzhigong1081ren,qizhongweishengjishurenyuan876ren,pingjunmei163renjiuyongyou1mingweishengjishurenyuan,jibenjianchenglefugaiquanqideyiliaoweishengfangyiwang。ewenkezujiankangsuzhibuduantigao,judiwuciquanguorenkoupucha,ewenkezurenkouyuqishoumingda66.63sui。

时时彩平台注册jinru21shiji,ewenkezudiqumianlinzhenandedelishijiyu。2001nianguojiabaewenkezudeng22gerenkouzai10wanrenyixiadeshaoshuminzuquedingweirenkoujiaoshaominzu,zainongtian、shuili、jiaotong、jiaoyu、weisheng、nongcunguangbodianshi、jizhenshishicaipingtaizhucedengfangmianjinxingfuchi,bingzhezhongjiejuezheixieminzudenongyefazhan、xinglu、shangxue、chishui、jiuyi、kandianshi、tingguangbodengtuchuwenti,ewenkezuhezhouweigeminzuyidaozoujinlegongtongfanrongfazhandexinshidai。2005nian,guowuyuantongguo《renkoujiaoshaominzufazhanguihua(2005-2010)》,juedingcaiqugezhongyouhuicuoshi,jiadazijinzhichilidu,conggenbenshanggaishanrenkoujiaoshaominzudeshengchanshenghuotiaojian。muqian,gexiangyouhuicuoshihebangfuxiangmuzhengzaiyoutiaobuwendituijin。xiangxin,zaidangheguojiadebangzhuhefuchixia,ewenkezuyidinghuiyouyigegengjiameilifurao、gengjiahexiefanrongdemeihaomingtian。

 

                                                  (摘自《民族问题五种丛书》之《中国少数民族》卷)

 
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