时时彩平台注册

 
 

蒙古族

 

民族概况:

    蒙古族有人口581.4万人(2000年),主要居住在内蒙古自治区和新疆、辽宁、吉林、黑龙江、甘肃、青海、河北等省、自治区的各蒙古族自治州、县。此外,还有少数蒙古族聚居或散居在宁夏、河南、四川、云南、北京等省、市、自治区。蒙古族主要聚居区在内蒙古自治区,全区有蒙古和汉、回、满、达斡尔、鄂温克、鄂伦春、朝鲜等50多个民族,2005年全区总人口为2386万人,其中蒙古族421万人。内蒙古自治区位于我国北部边疆,东西直线距离2400多公里,南北跨度1700多公里,面积118.3万平方公里,约占我国国土总面积的12.3%。全区以高原为主,有地域辽阔的内蒙古高原和鄂尔多斯高原,山脉由东到西有大兴安岭﹑阴山和贺兰山,沙漠主要集中于西部,有巴丹吉林和腾格里沙漠,另还有一些山地和丘陵。其中,兴安岭以西、阴山以北的内蒙古高原和黄河大湾以南的鄂尔多斯高原地势平坦,海拔一般都在1000米以上,大部有植物覆盖,分布着呼伦贝尔﹑锡林郭勒﹑科尔沁﹑乌兰察布﹑鄂尔多斯和乌拉特等全国著名的草原,是我国著名的天然牧场。全区草原面积达8700公顷,可利用的草场面积6800公顷,占全国可利用草场面积的1/5。畜群以羊、牛为主,其次为马、骆驼等。三河牛﹑三河马﹑草原红牛﹑乌珠穆沁肥尾羊﹑敖汉细毛羊﹑内蒙古细毛羊、阿尔巴斯白山羊﹑阿拉善驼等,都是全国闻名的优良畜种。全区可利用耕地为549万公顷,人均耕地面积0.24公顷,居全国第一,是全国人均耕地面积的3倍。大兴安岭以东有辽河和松嫩平原的小部分分布,号称“谷仓”,是国家农业开发的重点地区。阴山山脉(由大青山、乌拉山和狼山组成)形成一条天然屏障,对阴山南麓的河套平原和土默川平原的农业生产极为有利。那里土质肥沃,沟渠纵横,农田遍布,素有“塞上米粮川”之称,是内蒙古的主要产粮区。主要农作物有小麦、糜子、莜麦、玉米、高粱、大豆、土豆、胡麻、油菜籽、甜菜等。河套平原也是我国三大甜菜产区之一。河流有黄河﹑额尔古纳河﹑嫩江和西辽河四大水系,地表径流量90%以上集中在东部地区,全区共建有大小水库472座,有效灌溉面积18.5万公顷。黄河流经西南部,有航行灌溉之利,盛产驰名的“黄河鲤鱼”。湖泊较大的有呼伦湖、贝尔湖、乌梁素海、岱海、黄旗海等,盛产鲤、鲫、鲢、银鱼等鱼类,尤其是呼伦池,素有“鱼声喧嚣,饮马不进”之说。境内有达不苏、吉兰泰等数百个盐池、碱湖,盛产盐碱。其中吉兰泰盐场是我国最大的机械化湖盐场、湖盐区,也是最大的碘盐加工基地。森林面积居全国首位。被誉为“祖国绿色宝库”的大兴安岭,森林面积占全国森林面积的1/9,林木蓄积量占全国总量的12%。在山林中和草原上,栖息着很多珍禽奇兽,出产贵重皮毛,还有鹿茸、熊胆、麝香、虫草等名贵药材,甘草、党参、麻黄、黄芪、小茴香、大黄、知母等中草药400余种。素称“药中之王”的甘草产量最大,土特产品木耳﹑蘑菇、黄花菜等均畅销国内外市场。内蒙古地区地下蕴藏着丰富的矿产资源,有煤、铁、铬、锰、铜、铅、锌、金、银、锡、云母、石墨、水晶、石棉、玛瑙等,已经探明的有92种,其中62种矿产的储量居全国前10位。煤炭资源仅次于山西,居全国第2位,储量在100亿吨以上适宜露天开采的特大型煤田有5处,其中以准格尔﹑霍林河为最;铌、锗和天然碱储量居全国之首。内蒙古也是我国发现新矿物最多的省区,1958年以来,中国获得国际上承认的新矿物有50余种,其中10种发现于内蒙古。内蒙古草原自古以来就是我国古代北方少数民族活跃﹑驰骋的舞台。匈奴﹑东胡﹑鲜卑﹑乌桓﹑柔然﹑敕勒、回鹘﹑突厥﹑契丹﹑女真﹑蒙古等众多的古代北方民族,在这个舞台上留下了丰富的文化遗产,文物古迹遍布全区各地。比较著名的有: 呼和浩特的五塔寺﹑大召﹑昭君墓﹑白塔,包头市的五当召﹑美岱召,伊金霍洛旗的成吉思汗陵,巴彦浩特市的延福寺,赤峰市的辽上京﹑辽中京、大明塔,鄂伦春的嘎仙洞等。内蒙古自治区首府呼和浩特(意为青色的城),建于明代,称作“库库和屯”。明万历十六年(1588年)定名为“归化”。新中国成立后,恢复了呼和浩特(即“库库和屯”的异译)的名称。蒙古族有自己的语言文字。蒙古语属阿尔泰语系蒙古语族,分内蒙古、卫拉特、巴尔虎布利亚特三种方言。13世纪初,蒙古族在回鹘文字母基础上创制了自己的文字。元世祖忽必烈命西藏喇嘛八思巴创制蒙古新字,俗称“八思巴字”,是根据藏文加以变化创制而成。元朝时是“国字”,元亡以后基本不再使用。14世纪初,蒙古学者却吉•斡斯尔对最初的蒙古文字进行了改革,成为至今通用的﹑规范化的蒙古文字。新疆的蒙古族使用卫拉特方言。17世纪中,札雅?班第达对通用的蒙古文字稍加改变,使卫拉特语音得以准确表达出来,被称为“托忒•必扯克”(意为精确的文字),这种文字被称为“陶德”(托忒)蒙古文。

历史沿革:

mengguzuxingchengyu13shijichu,zuichuzhishimengguzhubuluozhongdeyigeyidonghuweizuyuandebuluosuoshiyongdemingcheng,houlaizhujianxishouheronghelejujuyumobeidiqudesenlinshouliehecaoyuanyoumubuluo,fazhanchengweizheixiebuluodegongtongmingcheng。“menggu”yicishi“manghuole”deyinbian,zuizaojianyutangdai,jixin﹑jiu《tangshu》zhongde“mengwushiwei”。“mengwu”shi“menggu”yicizuizaodehanwenyiming,houlaiyouyou“menggu”﹑“menggu”﹑“mengguzi”﹑“mangguzi”﹑“menggu”dengxuduotongyinyiming。“menggu”dehanwenyixieshijianyuyuandaiwenxian。

eergunahe(tangdaichengwangjianhe)dongandiqu,shimenggubudelishiyaolan。dayuezaigongyuan7shiji,menggubukaishixiangmenggucaoyuanqianyi,12shiji,tayijingsanbuzaijinenenhe﹑kelulunhe﹑tulahedeshangyouhekenteshanyidongyidai,bingfenyanchuqiyan﹑zhadalan﹑taichiwudengxuduobuluo。menggubuzhiwai,zaimenggucaoyuanhebeijiaerhuzhouweidesenlindidai,haiyoutataer﹑wengjila﹑mieerqi﹑woyila﹑kelie﹑naiman﹑wangguzhubu。tamendaxiaobudeng,jingjiwenhuafazhanyebupingheng。youmuzaicaoyuanshangdebeichengzuo“youzhanzhangdebaixing”,zhuyaocongshichumuye;juzhuzaisenlindidaidebeichengzuo“linmuzhongdebaixing”,zhuyaocongshiyulie。gongyuan11shiji,tamenjiechengleyitataerweishoudelianmeng,qiangdayishi。yinci“tataer”huo“dada”(yindada)cengyiduchengweimenggucaoyuangebudetongcheng。houlaixifangshehuitongchangjiujiangmenggufanchengweidada。song﹑liao﹑jinshidai,mobeidemenggubutongchengweiheidada,monandewanggubuweibaidada。youshidadayefanchengzhongguobeifanggeminzu。13shijichu,yichengjisihanweishoudemenggubutongyilemenggudiquzhubu,bingzhujianrongheweiyigexindeminzugongtongti。“menggu”yiciyouyuanlaiyigebuluodemingchengbianchengweiminzumingcheng。

时时彩平台注册chengjisihanyuanmingtiemuzhen,tatongyimenggugebuhou,yu1206nianzaiwonanhe(jinenenhe)panzhaokailehuliletai(dajuhui),beigebuguizutuidaiweiquanmenggudedahan,haochengjisihan,jianliletongyidemengguguizuzhengquan,zheigefengjianhanguoduimenggushehuidefazhanqilezhongyaozuoyong。jiweihou,tazhankailedaguimodeduiwaijunshizhengfahuodong。1211nianhe1215niandajuxiangjinjingong,zhanlingzhongdou(jinbeijing);1219nianfadongdiyicixizheng,bantukuozhandaozhongyadiquhenane。1227nianzhengfuxixiashibingshi。suihoudewokuotaihanhemenggehanjixujinxingzhengfahuodong,xianhoumiexixia﹑jinheqitazhengquan,haizhengfulezhongyaheouzhoubufendiqu,jianlilesidahanguo。1260nian,hubiliezuoledahan,batongzhizhongxinyoumobeidehelinqianzhiyanjing(houchengdadou,jinbeijingshi)。1271niangaimengguguohaowei“yuan”,1279nian,mienansong,tongyilequanguo。yuandai,menggudiqubeifenfengweixuduofengjianlingdi,fenshuyulingbei﹑liaoyang﹑gansusanxingshenghezhongshusheng。

yuanwanghou,mingchaozailiaodongxibu﹑monannanbu﹑gansubeibuhehamiyidaixianhoushezhilemengguweisuo20duochu,geweisuozhangguandouyoumenggufengjianlingzhudanren。15shijichu,moximengguwalabu(jiyuandaidewoyilabu)hedongbumenggubenbu(mingchaorenchengweidada)xianhouxiangmingchaochengchennagong,yumingchaojianlilechenshuguanxi。1409nian,mingchaofengwalabusangefengjianzhumahamuweishunningwang﹑taipingweixianyiwang﹑batubeiluoweianlewang。1413nianyoufengdongbumenggubenbufengjianzhualutaiweiheningwang。houlaidayanhancengyidutongyidongbumenggubenbugebushili,bingdiaozhengleqifengjianzhixu,zaizhengdundaxiaolingdidejichushang,zhongxinhuafenleliugewanhu,fenzuo﹑youliangyigesanwanhu。16shijizhongyeyihou,yuanzhumuyuhalahahelianganjikelulunhefujindedongbumenggubenbuzhongdekaerkabuzhujianxiangmobeiqianyi,xingchengweizhasaketuhan﹑tuxietuhan﹑chechenhandengsandabu(qingyongzhengsannian,youcongtuxietuhanbufenchusaiyinnuoyanhanbu,tongchengkaerkasibu),shiweimobeimenggu;menggubenbudeqitabufenrengliujuyuyuandi,xingchenglemonanmenggu。1571nian,mingchaofengmonanmengguyouyilingzhu﹑tumotebuandahanweishunyiwang,bingshouyuhenduolingzhuyiguanzhi。monanmengguzuoyizejixuyumingchaochuyuduilizhuangtai。moximengguwalabuzai16shijishifenweizhungaer(chuoluosi)、duerbotebu﹑tuerhutebu﹑heshuotesibu。mingmo,tuerhutebuyimuyujinfuerjiahexiayou,qingqianlongsanshiliunian(1771nian)youzhengtuoleshaedenuyi,fanhuizuguo;heshuotebuxiangdongnanqianxi,yimuyuqinghaidengdi。

时时彩平台注册monanmenggu16gebu49gefengjianzhuzai1636nianqianhouguishuyuhoujin——qing。cihou,mobeimengguheqinghaideelutemenggugebufengjianzhuxianhouxiangqingchaoqianshinagong。tongshi,shaedeqinlvemozhuashenjinlewoguoxinjiangelutemenggudiqu,bingshoumaihecedongelutezhungaerbuguizugaerdandengduiqinghaimenggu﹑mobeimengguhemonanmenggufadongqinxi,qingchaojingguoduociyongbing,zhongyuzai1776nianpingdinglezhungaershaoshuguizudepanluan,zhongxintongyilemengguzudiqu。weilejiaqiangduimengguzudetongzhi,zaizhongxindiaozhengmengguyuanlaidedaxiaofengjianlingdi“wulusi”﹑“etuoke”dejichushang,qingzhengfucanzhaomanzudebaqizhi,zaimengguzudiqujianlilemengqizhidu。

yapianzhanzhengyihou,suizhewaiguozibenzhuyideruqin,mengguzudiquhequanguoyiyang,yezhujianlunweibanzhimindibanfengjianshehui。tongshi,fuyouguangronggemingchuantongdemengguzurenminfandifanfengjiandouzhengyeyizhijianchibuxiedijinxingzhe。

zaiqinlvezhongguodezibenzhuyilieqiangzhong,shaezuixianshenchuqinlvemozhang,suihouribenshilizhujianshentoudaomenggudiqu。17shijichu,shaeliyongduozhongfangshiqinlvemenggudiqu。yapianzhanzhenghou,shaebujintongguoyixiliebupingdengtiaoyueqinzhanlewoguodapianlingtu,haijuequlegezhongtequan,qingxiaoshangpin﹑shuchuziben﹑xiuzhutielu﹑lveduoziyuan,kongzhimenggudiqudejingjimingmai。xinhaigemingshiqi,shaechenjigoujiehezhichishaoshufengjianshangcenghelamahuofo---zhebuzundanbadengzaimenggudiqucedongsuowei“duli”﹑“zizhi”,shandongminzubaileifadongpanluan,wangtujiejitunbingmenggudiqu。xinhaigeminghou,ribendiguozhuyijiajinqinlvewoguodongbeihedongmenggudiqu。20shiji30niandaichu,neimenggudabufendiqulunweiribendiguozhuyidezhimindi。tamenwangluomeng﹑hanjiantoumu,rudemuchukedonglupu(jidewang)﹑lishouxin﹑wangyingdeng,pincouweijun,jianlikuileizhengquan,duilunxianqumeng﹑hangezurenminjinxingcanbaotongzhi,lveduohesouguacaifu。

youyuguowaidiguozhuyi﹑guoneifandongtongzhijiejihemengguzuneibutongzhishilidecankulveduoheyapo,mengguzudiqushengchanyanzhongshuaitui,gezurenminshenghuojiduanpinkun,renkoujijuxiajiang。runeimenggutumoteqi,1939nianyou4.8wanren,dao1946nianzhishengxia2wanren。

weilebaituominzuweiwangdemingyun,mengguzurenminqianfuhoujidijinxingleyingyongdegemingdouzheng。17shijichuqi,mengguzurenminjiujiyushaeqinlvezheyijianjuedehuiji。1607nian,elutemengguhedadamenggurenmingongtongzuchengle5000rendeduiwu,yijuxiaomieleruqinwoguoxibeibianjiangde200duoshaegesakeqinlvejun。shaewuzhuangqinlvezheyoucaiyongleweibiyoupiandeshoufa,wangtulalongmenggugebushouling“zhuanrueguoguoji”﹑“guifueguo”,zaodaogebuaiguoshoulingdejujue,jiangquanjiangde“shijie”ganchumenggubao,congercuobaileshaedeyinmou。

1859nian6yue,ying﹑faqinlvejunjinfandagukou,zhushouzaineilide2000duomingmengguzuqibingzaisenggelinqindezhihuixia,buguqingchaozhengfudemaiguotoujiangmingling,fenqiziweihaiji。jingguoyizhouyejizhan,jichendijian4sou,bishangdijun400duoren,dadeqinlvejunlangbeitaocuan。

taipingtianguoyundongshiqi,mengguzurenminxianqilefanduiqingchaozhengfuhemengguzufengjiantongzhijiejidedouzheng。1858nian,neimengguyikezhaomengwushenqibaofaleyoupinkunmuminpilejiedenglingdaode“duguilong”yundong(huozuo“duoguilun”,mengguyu“huanxing”、“quanzi”zhiyi。canjia“duguilong”deren,kaihuishianhuanxingxidierzuo,fabiaowenjianqianmingshiyeyicijiangmingzipaichengyigeyuanquan,yinyideming),fankangguizuguanlidekejuanzashuihebingchayaoyi。cihou,zaineimengguxibudiqu,mengguzurenmindouyi“duguilong”dexingshiyutongzhijiejibuduandizhankaidouzheng。neimenggudongbuzeyoumengguzubailingalingdaodeyizhou﹑chaoyangqiyi,han、menggudengzurenmintuanjiezhandou,dajiletongzhizhe。

时时彩平台注册xinhaigemingshiqi,mengguzurenminzhankaileyibaohumuchanghefanduodiweizhongxindefankangbeiyangjunfadedouzheng。xinilama(wulejijiergele)lingdaodewushenqi“duguilong”yundong,chengweidangshiyimeng(eerduosishi)gemingdouzhengdezhongxin。1912nianhe1914nianxianhouzaihoutaodiquhedalateqibaofalefanduiwanggongchumaiqidi﹑kejuanzashuiheguanchayaoyidedouzheng。zheiniandongtian,chaoyang﹑suidong﹑jianpingdengdidemeng﹑hangezurenminyexianqilekangjuankangshuidouzheng。

zhongguogongchandangchenglibujiu,zhonggongbeifangzhengzhiweiyuanhuidefuzerenlidazhaodengtongzhiduineimenggukaizhanlegeminggongzuo。1924nian,duosongnian﹑liyuzhi﹑wulanfu﹑jiyataidengmengguzuxianjinfenziguangrongdijiarulezhongguogongchandang,bingzaibeijingmengzangxuexiaozuchenglemengguzudediyigedangzhibu。cihou,xuduomengguzuxueshengjiarulezhongguogongchandanghuoshehuizhuyiqingniantuanzuzhi,jijidicanjialedanglingdaodexueshengyundonghegezhonggeminghuodong。

guoneigemingzhanzhengshiqi,dangweilejiaqiangduineimenggudiqugemingdouzhengdelingdao,zaihuhehaote﹑baotou﹑chahaer﹑rehedengdijianliledangdegongzuoweiyuanhui,chenglilegemingqunzhongtuanti-----gongnongbingdatongmeng。hailiyongkanwuxiangmenggudiqugezurenminxuanchuangemingdaoliyijidangduimengguminzujiefangshiyedezhuzhang。1926nian,youbushaomengguzudegemingqingniandaonongminyundongjiangxisuoxuexilingtingmaozedongtongzhidejiaodao,chengweinongminyundongdegugan。dagemingshibaihou,xuduoyouxiudemengguzugongchandangyuanhegemingzhishiruduosongnian﹑liyuzhidengcanzaoshahai。danshi,neimenggudiqudegemingdouzhengbingmeiyoutingzhi。1929nian,zaidongbudiqubaofalegadameilinfanduimengguwanggongguizugoujiedongbeijunfachumaitudidedouzheng。

kangrizhanzhengshiqi,danglingdaoneimenggumeng﹑hangezurenminzaiyikezhaomenghedaqingshandiqukangriyoujigenjudikaizhankangridouzheng。kangzhanshenglihou,mengjianbuyingdalaidengzaixilinguolemengxisuniteqichenglilesuowei“neimenggugongheguolinshizhengfu”。wulanfudengtongzhiduizheizhongfenliehuodongjinxinglejianjuedouzheng。zaifadongqunzhongdejichushang,zhaokaileneimenggurenmindaibiaodahui,jiesanle“linshizhengfu”,1945nian11yuezaizhangjiakouzhaokaileneimenggugemengqidaibiaohuiyi,chenglileneimengguzizhiyundonglianhehui。1946nian4yue3rizaichengdezhaokailezizhiyundongtongyihuiyi,chexiao“dongmengguzizhizhengfu”,chenglileneimengguzizhiyundonglianhehuidongmengzongfenhuihexinganshengrenminzhengfu。1947nian5yue1ri,zhengshichenglileneimengguzizhiqu。

时时彩平台注册jiefangzhanzhengzhong,cong1947nian5yuezhi1950nian8yue,neimengguqibingcanjiadaxiaozhandou600duoci,jianmiedijun2wanduoren,jiaohuozhanma2wanduopi﹑gezhongqiangzhi1wanduojian。tamenweiminzuzishendejiefangyijizhonghuaminzudechedijiefangzuochulezhongyaogongxian,tongshiyeshixianleduimengguminzushehuizhidudezhongdagaibian。

时时彩平台注册yuandaiyilai,mengguzuzaizuguoxuduokexuewenhualingyuzuochulegongxian。zaozai13shijichu,mengguzujiuchuangzhilezijidewenzi,cujinlemengguzuwenhuadefazhan,luxuchuxiangezhongxingshidelishi﹑wenxuezuopin。13shijizhongyexiechengde《menggumishi》(hanyiming《yuanchaomishi》)shimengguzudeyibuzhongyaodelishi﹑wenxuemingzhu,tashimengguzuduizuguogudaiwenhuadeyigezhongdagongxian,xianyibeilianheguojiaokewenzuzhidingweishijiezhumingwenhuayichan。yuandai,tuotuozhuchibianzuande《songshi》﹑《liaoshi》、《jinshi》shiwoguozhongyaoshiji,youxuduomengguzuxuezhecanjialesanshidexiuzhuan。yuandaihaichuxianlebushaomengguzudeshufajiaheyouxiuxuezhe,ruqueji?wosierdeng,tamenbianyilexuduohanwen﹑zangwenheqitawenzidezhuzuo。zaidilixuehecehuixuefangmian,yuanchaozhengfuzhubianle《dayuanyitongzhi》,jizailedangshiquanguodediliqingkuang。mengguzudekoutouwenxueyiyingxiongshishi《jianggeer》zuiweizhuming,shizhongguowenxueshishang“sandayingxiongshishi”zhiyi。yuandai,haiyouhenduomenggurenshiyonghanwenjinxingshige、sanqu、zajudengdechuangzuo,bingqudeyidingchengjiu。

mingdai,mengguzudewenhuayoulejinyibufazhan。《huangjinshi》﹑《huangjinshigang》he《wubashenhongtaijidegushi》shizheiyishiqidezhongyaolishi﹑wenxuezhuzuo。ciwai,haibianzhulexuduozhongmeng﹑handuizhaodecihuijihemengguyufashu,ru《huayiyiyu》、《xinjian》deng。tuchudeshidui《menggumishi》he《ganzhuerjing》defanyigongzuo。duiyu《menggumishi》,chubaquanshuyichenghanwenwai,haibamengguyuyuanwenyonghanzizhujuzhuzidiyinyichulai,shizheibubaoguidelishiwenxiandeyibaocunxialai,shimeng﹑han、huidengzuxuezhegongtongnulidejieguo。《ganzhuerjing》shimeng﹑zang﹑hanzuxuezhegongtonghezuofanyide,tongguo《ganzhuerjing》defanyi,shimengguyuyandeguifanhuahecihuidefengfuxingdedaolejinyibudefazhan;tongshi,yecujinlemeng﹑han﹑zangdengzudewenhuashishicaipingtaizhucehegongtongfazhan。zheishimengguzudewenhuaduimanzuwenhuayefashengleyingxiang。laomanwenjiushiyongmengguwenzimuchuangzhide,houlaizaizitoushangjiayiquandianjiushixinmanwen。zaicihuiheyufafangmianmengguyuduimanyudeyingxiangyehenda。

时时彩平台注册qingdai,mengguzuwenhuafazhanbijiaotuchudeyigefangmian,jiushishumianyuyandexingchengheguifanhua。mengguzuxuezhehuodandu﹑huoyuqitaminzuxuezhehezuo,bianzuanlehenduomengguyucidianheduozhongminzuwenziduizhaohebiandedacidian。ru《mengwenzhiyao》、《mengwenqimengzhushizhengzicangtianruyizhu》﹑《mengwenquanshi》﹑《mengzangyuhui》hesiti(man﹑meng﹑han﹑zang)﹑wuti(man﹑meng﹑han﹑zang﹑weiwuerwen)《qingwenjian》﹑《xiyutongwenzhi》(man﹑meng﹑han﹑zang﹑weiwuer﹑tuotewen)﹑《sanhebianlan》(man﹑meng﹑hanwen)deng。lishizhuzuoyi《eerdenituobuchi》(hanyi《mengguyuanliu》)zuiweizhuming,haiyou《asalakeqishi》、《dayuanshengchaoshi》he《xizhaioude》﹑《fengchengsuolu》deng。《moushengjian》shimengguzuzuizaodeyibujingjizhuzuo。bushaomengguzuxuezhehaifanyilejinbaizhonghan﹑zangdengzudegudianwenxuezuopin,ru《hongloumeng》﹑《shuihuchuan》﹑《sanguoyanyi》﹑《xiyouji》deng,duiyufengfuhefazhanmengguzuwenxueheyuyancihuiqilejijizuoyong。

时时彩平台注册yixuehelisuanyeyouhendafazhan,mengguzudeyixuehetianwenlisuanshizaihan﹑zangliangzudeyingxiangxiafazhanqilaide。mengguzuyishengzhuyaoshilamayi,yizhichuangshanghejieguzuiweizhuming。17shijishicizhongliaofachuandaoneidi。yixuezhuzuoru《sibuganlu》、《shanhuyanfang》、《mengyijinkui》、《mengyizhijihemaizhen》、《mengyaozhengdian》dengzaiyixuelilun、fangji、zhenduanheyaowudengfangmiandouyoujiaodayingxiang。ciwaihaiyizhulexuduoyixuezhuzuo,ru《mengzanghebiyixue》﹑《maijue》﹑《yixuesibujibenlilun》《yaowujing》deng。zaishouyifangmian,mengguzuyeyouzhongyaogongxian。zailisuanfangmian,mengguzutianwenxuejiaheshuxuejiamingantudegongxianbijiaotuchu。taqianhouzaiqingchaoqintianjiangongzuoleshushinian,canjiale《lvliyuanyuan》、《lixiangkaochenghoubian》﹑《yixiangkaocheng》sanbutianwenlifashudebianzuangongzuo。ciwai,haizhuyou《geyuanmilvjiefa》yishu(houlaiyoutadeerzihexueshengxuwan),shiwoguodiyigeyongjiexifangfayanjiuyuanzhoulvderen,zaizuguoshuxuefazhanshishangzuochulegongxian。tazaijindaiditucehuifangmianyeyoujidachengji,youyutaliangcidaoxinjiangshidiceliang,caishiwoguodiyifuyongjindaifangfacehuidequanguodaditu《huangyuquanlantu》deyiquanbuwancheng。mengguzuyanjiushuxuebingyouzhuzuoliuyuhoushide,haiyouqingmodedoulun(ziguofu)deng。zaiqingdaiqintianjianzhongyehaiyoubushaomengguzutianwenyanjiurenyuan。ciwaizaijixiezhizao﹑bingqizhizao﹑maozhi﹑jianzhu﹑shuilidengfangmian,mengguzuyeyouyidingchengjiuhegongxian。

jindaishehuimengguzuzaiwenhuafangmianyezuochulezhongyaogongxian。mengguzuzhumingwenxuejiayinzhannaxidechengjiuzuiweituchu,《yicenglou》、《qihongting》helishixiaoshuo《qingshiyanyi》doushizhumingdewenxuezuopin。mingezhongde《heijunma》、《gadameilin》dengbiaoxianlemengguzuteyoudeminzushenghuoheyingxiongrenwu。《shagedeerdegushi》shimengguzuwenxuebaokuzhongdeyizhiqipa,bamengguminjianyanyu﹑biyu﹑minge﹑haolibao﹑zanci﹑zhucidengjianshoubingxu,ronghuazaizijideshigeli,yicizuoweixiangdirenjingongderuiliwuqi,shenweimengguzurenminsuoxiai。yuyanxue、lishixuezhuzuoyou《mengwenzhiyao》、《mengwenyaoyidaquan》he《shuijingjian》deng。

时时彩平台注册cong13shijichumengguzujinrujiejishehuiyilai,zhidaoyapianzhanzhengqianxi,qishehuizhiduyizhishifengjianlingzhuzhidu,danbutongshiqishehuizuzhidemingchengchuxianguoyidingdebianhua。

时时彩平台注册menggudiguojianliqian,chumuyeshimengguzuzhuyaodejingjibumen。mumincongshichumu,zhushuicaojinxingsishiqianxi。chumufangshi:huoyi“ayinle”(gebiejiazu)dandufangmu,huoyi“gulieyan”xingshizuchengyidingguimodeyingpanjinxingjitiyoumu。suoyi,“ayinle”he“gulieyan”shizuijibendeshengchanheshenghuodanwei。“wulusi”jibuluoshiyouhuoduohuoshaode“ayinle”zucheng,zaiyidingde“nentuhei”(mudi)shangfangmu,shimenggudejibenshehuizuzhi。qizuzhineibu,youguizu、shumin、nuli,guizushitongzhijieji,shuminhenulishibeitongzhijieji,nulideshulianghenshao。

时时彩平台注册damengguguojianlihoudemengyuanshiqi,chengjisihanzaimenggucaoyuantuixingqianhuzhi,menggudahanshizhenggeguojiatudiherenmindesuoyouzhe,mengguzhuwangyinfenfengzhiduhuodezijideminhuhefengdi,shixizhanyou,bingduiqizisunjinxingjiatingneidezaifenfeng。tamendelingdihesuoshuminhubeihechengweiaima,huotouxia。yixingfengjianzhuchengweiqianhuzhang、baihuzhang,lingdiyekeyishixi,danqizhizeshiweiguizushishicaipingtaizhuce。yuanchaozaimenggucaoyuandiqusuishelingbei﹑liaoyang﹑gansusanxingshenghezhongshushengjinxingguanxia,dantongshiyoushixinglezongwangchuzhenmobeizhidu,menggucaoyuanjixubeifenfengjizhuwangheguizugongchen,guerbuluorengranshicaoyuanshangdejicengzuzhi,qianhuzeshibuluodexiashudanwei。“ayinle”haishizuijibendeshengchanheshenghuodanwei,suoyoumenggumumindoulishuyumouyigeqianhu、mouyigezongwanghuoneiyan。

时时彩平台注册mingdai,yuanchaotongzhishilituiwangmenggucaoyuan,huifuweidanyiyoumujingjideminzuzhengquan,qijicengzuzhizaiqianhoulianggejieduanfashengguozhongdabianhua。minghongzhi(1488-1505)yiqian,aimarengranshimenggushehuijibendeshehuizuzhi,yongyouaimaderenbujinshidahan、zhuwang、gongzhu、waiqihexunchen,haiyouhenduoguanyuan。hongzhiyihou,dayanhantongyimenggu,yongyouquanbulingdiheshumin,gaojuquanlidingfeng,duizisunshixingzhucengfenfeng,fenfengjizhuzimeirenyigewulusi(tumian、wanhu),zhuzizaibalingdiheshuminxiangzijideersunmenfenfeng,meirenzhangguanyigeetuoke。zheiyang,hanting(damengguguo)--wulusi(tumian、wanhu)--etuokejiuxingchenglejinzitashidefengjiandengjizhidu。suoyi,mingzhonghouqi,etuokequdaileaimademingcheng,chengweimenggushehuizuzhidejicengzuzhi,yeshimengguzuijibendejunshi﹑xingzhenghejingjidanwei。mengguguizu、senglvshangceng、yixingfengjianzhushitongzhijieji,erdabufenpingmin、nupu、yibandesenglvtuzhongshibeitongzhijieji,shiguizuboxuededuixiang。

qingdai,qingzhengfuzaimenggudiqushixingmengqizhidu。qishimenggudiqujibenjunshihexingzhengdanwei,tongshiyeshihuangdicijiqineigejimenggufengjianzhudeshixilingdi。qingzhengfurenyongmengguguizuchurenzhasake,tonglinggeqi。monanmenggu49qidezhasakejichuliqineidexingzheng、sifa、fushuidengshiwu,yeshiyiqidezuigaojunshizhangguan。mobei、moxi、qinghaidengdidezhasakemeiyoubingquan,qijunduiyouqingzhengfupaiwanggedidejiangjun、dachenjicanzandachenjiezhi。chucizhiwaidezongguanqihelamaqishiqingtingdezhishulingdi,bushezhasake,bushixinghuimeng,youzhengfuweipaizongguanjinxingguanli。yuyouzhongdashiwu,menggugeqihuimengxieshangjiejuebanfa,zheijiushihuimengzhidu。monan49qiyouqingtingfenbiezhidingruoganqifentouhuimeng。mobeihemoxidiqurengyimenggudabuluoweidanwei,danduhuimeng。cimengqizhiduyizhiyanxudaominguoshiqi。huimengdezhuyaorenwushijianyuemenggudiqubingyuanshuliang、suzhihejunbeizhuangkuang。qingqianqi,menggushehuirengranshifengjianlingzhuzhishehui,wanggongguizuhesenglvfengjianzhushifengjianlingzhu,alebatu、sishuminhenupushibeitongzhizhe。qingzhongqiyihou,suizhemenggudiqufengbixingbeidapo,liumindaliangqianru,nongyefazhan,fengjiandeboxuefangshikaishishengxing。nongquchuxiandizhuhenongminjieji,muquchuxianmuzhuhemuhujieji,tamenzhijianderenshenyifuchengdudadajiangdile。zheixiejimenggushehuidailailejiejiguanxidexinbianhua。

风俗文化:

mengguzushizhongguobeifanggulaodeyoumuminzu,gudaiyichumuyeweizhu,jianyingnongyeheshougongye。xiandaishehui,jianlibingfazhanlejiagongyehegongye。chumuyeshengchanshimengguzurenminlishishanglaiyishengcunfazhandezhuyaojingjishengchanfangshi,chuchanpinweiqiyishizhiyuan,neimenggudacaoyuanshitamenhuoyuedelishiwutai。

时时彩平台注册mengguzudewuzhishenghuo,juyoudutedeminzufengge。

时时彩平台注册mengguzudefushishishoumenggucaoyuanshenghuohuanjingjuedingde。fushizhong,zhangpaoshimengguzurenmindechuantongfushi,paozifeida,bukaicha。guoqumuqudedongzhuangduoweiguangbanpiyi,yeyouyichouduan﹑mianbuzuoyimiande;xiajiyibanchuanbulei;yanseyibanaiyonghong﹑huang﹑shenlanse。dongjimurenfangmushikeyinuanshenyuhan,xiajikeyifangzhiwenchongdingyao。tamenhaixihuanyonghonglvsechouduanzuoyaodai,bingpeiguachirouyongdedaozi,daoqiaozhuangshishifenpiaoliang。youdehaiguazhehuolian﹑biyanhedeng。xihuanchuanruantongniupixuezi,zhangdaoxigai。zheitongyangshiyumuquziranhuanjinghechangnianliudongzaiwaideyoumushenghuotedianxiangshiyingde。nongqunongminduochuanbuyi,youzhangpao(kaicha)﹑mianyi﹑mianao﹑chenyi﹑chenshandeng,dongtianduochuanzhanxue﹑wula,chuangaotongxuedeshao,yezhayaodai。nanzixidailan﹑hei﹑hesedemaozi,yeyouyongchouzibatouchanshangde。nvzidouyonghong﹑lansedebubatouchanshang,dongjihenanrenyiyangdaishangyuanzhuixingdemaozi。weihunnvzibatoufacongqianfangzhongjianfenkai,zhashanglianggefagen﹑fagenshangmiandailianggedayuanzhu,fashaoxiachui,bingyongmanao﹑shanhu﹑biyudengzhuangshiqilai。xianzai,mengguzufushifangmianyoulejidadebianhua。dongjiwulunnannvdouchuanxinchaodepiyi﹑yurongfu,jiqingnuanyoumeiguan;xiajidechuanzhegengshiduozhongduoyang,congfuzhuangkuanshi﹑yongliaohehanzujibenyizhi。nanzixizhuanggelv,nvziyeduoweixifuhequnzhuang。zhiyouzaijiaobaohuozhaokaineidamudahuishi,qizhuchizhe﹑canjiagewubiaoyanderenhejishaoshuyuhuizhecaihuichuanchuantongfuzhuang。

yinshishouqijingjishengchanleixingzhiyue。muquyiniu﹑yangroujinaishiweizhu,yiliangshi﹑shucaiweifu。naipinyounaidoufu、naigeda﹑naigan﹑nailao﹑naiyou﹑suannaideng。zaochenchichaomihenaicha,chazhongjiashangsuyouheshaoxuqingyan,weidaoxianmeikekou。zhongwuhewanshangduoxichiniu﹑yangrou。zhuanchashimuminbukequeshaodebixupin,zhuhaohoushaojiaxiexiannai。muminshaofan﹑zhuchadezhuyaoranliaoshiniufen,huoyanqiadaohaochu。nongcunyiliangshiweizhu,naishiweifu。xianzai,jingjifazhan,renmendeyinshijiegougaishanlexuduo,churoushiwai,gedidongxiadounengchidaoxinxianshucai。

juzhuyeyuqishengchanfangshixiangshiying。yuanxingmenggubaoshimengguzumuminchuantongdejuzhugongju,juyoubianyubanyun﹑yiyuchaida﹑dikangfenghandengtedian,shiyuyoumushenghuo。yibanmenggubaogaoqi﹑bachi,zhijingzhangyu,yiyuanxingweibi“hanei”hesanxingdingjia“woni”zucheng。zhouweihedingshangfuyihouzhan,yongmaoshengcongsimianfuqilai。baodingzhongyangyoutianjing,yongyutongfengyuxishouyangguang。bufenmuqujibannongbanmuqushiyongtumujiegoudemenggubao,waixingdatiyuzhanbaoxiangtong。youdezaixiangyangchukaizhechuangzi,limianqihuokang,zaiyimeng(eerduosishi)yidaicheng“dugui”,yiweiyuanxing。yeyoushaoshuhanshizhuanfang,duoweiwanggongfudihehuofo、lama、guanyuandezhuzhai。nongyequjibannongbanmuquchangjiandeshierjianhuosanjiandepingfang,dananbeikanghuodongkang,tonghanshifangwuxiangfang。xianzai,suizhemengguzuyoumuxisuxiangdingdianfangmuhuoshesibanshesizhuanbian,mengguzurenminjihuwanquandingjuzaizhuanwafanghuoloufangli。zhiyouzaineixielvyouqucainengjiandaochuantongyiyishangdemenggubaole。

guoqu,mengguzuzaishengchan﹑shenghuozhongdejiaotonggongjuhefangshiyiqimaweizhu,lingwaihaiyouleleche。xianzaimuquduoqimotuoche,huokaijipuchefangmu,henduomumindouyongyouduotaishengchanheshenghuoyongdejidongche。

mengguzushiyigefeichangreqing﹑haoke﹑zhilvdeminzu,mangmangdecaoyuanshangmeiyoulvdian,danmeiyizuomenggubaolidezhurendouhuiyukuaidizhaodaineixiesubuxiangshidekeren,tamenduanchunaicha,zhenshangnaijiu,zhushangyangrou,huoyigequanjiu,huojingxianhada,rechengzhaodaikeren。quanjianannvlaoshaoweizhekerenzuoxia,wenzhangwenduan,wanruzijiaren。gaobiedeshihouchangsongchuhenyuan,zhishiluxian,shifenqinqie。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochengliqian,mengguzudiqucengyouguohenduoluohoudehunyinxisu,ruguizuyifuduoqi﹑baobanhunyin﹑jiehunqianyaoyoulamanianjinghuoqiushenwengua﹑zhongpinli﹑qianghun、shoujihunxisudengfengsu。xinzhongguochenglihou,tamenyangeshixingyifuyiqizhi,qingniannannvdoushiziyoulianai,zizhuzeou,juedaduoshujiazhangjieshouhetongyihaizidexuanze,fumuqianwangnvfangjia“zhengdetongyi”zhishiyizhongbiyaodechengxu。neixieluohouhunsudabubeifeichu。

youyulaodonglibuzu,yeyouyixiejiatingzhaoxuruzhui。xinzhongguochengliqian,zhaoxuzaigedijiaofaheneirongdouyousuobutong。xibualashanqijiao“fuergenabunei”(jizhaoxu),yidanbeizhaoruzhuijiusuanjiashu。jingguoyidingshijianhou,yuefurenweikeyilingguoshi,bojiyibufencaichanfenju。dongbumenggumingchengshangjiao“fuqinfuergen”,jiguyongdenvxu,biaoxianweiguyongguanxi,bubeirenzuoshijiashu。xiandaishehui,neixienanfangjiazhongxiongdijiaoduo,nvfangjiazhongmeiyounanhaidejiatingyehuixuanzecongqijudeshenghuofangshi,danzaishehuihejiatingzhongyijingbuzaishoudaoqishi。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochengliqian,mengguzudesangzangyibanyouhuozang﹑tuzangheyezang(yechengtianzang)。xibumuquchangjiandeshiyezang。rensihoujiangshitifangzaimuluncheshanglazhepao,zhidaodiaoxialaiweizhi。shitizhiyuhuangye,beilanghuoyeyingchidiao,sizhedelinghunjikeyishengtiantang。qitianhou,ruguosizhedeshitihaizai,beirenweishibujixiangde,bixujixuqinglamanianjing﹑xianglamabushi,tisizheqidaoxiaozai。huozangzhuyaoshishangcenglama,tuzangzeduoweiwanggongguizuyijinongquhuobannongmuqudemengguren。xinzhongguochenglihou,mengguzuyezangxingshixiaoshi,wanquangaiyongtuzanghehuozang,qisangzangfangshidexuanzezhuyaoqujueyuzijijiazudexiguan。

mengguzuyijiatingweijibendeshengchanhexiaofeidanwei,yibanyoufuqiheweichengnianzinvzucheng。yinqisuyoujinglaoxisu,jiatingzhongbeifenzuigaodenanziweijiazhang,zhangwoshiquan,zhangfudiweigaoyuqizi。muqu﹑bannongbanmuqulveyoubutong,nanzichulijiatingdashishi,yibanxuzhengdeqizidetongyi。erzijiehunhoufenju,linglimenhu。tongchangshizhuzaifumudemenggubao(xianzaidaduoweifangwu)fujin,gongtongzou“aoteer”(jiyoumu,xianzaishihuadingquyufangmu)。caichanjichengshang,yibanshizaizinvjiehunshiyicixingfenpeiyidingdejiachan,congcizaimeiyoufenpeihejichengjiachandejihui。hefumuyitongshenghuobingfuzefumuwannianshenghuodezinvjiangshifumusuoyoucaichandezuizhongjichengzhe。

henduomengguzumuminkuaizuanhuayanguo(yandou),cengyou“yigeyanguohuanyizhiyang”zhishuo。yongwuzhongjinshuyuanliaozuanchenghua﹑niao﹑yu﹑shoudenghuawentuandeyanguo,zaipeishanghongmanaoyanzuihetanxiangmuyangan,bujinshiyong,haishishifenjingmeidegongyipin。

mengguzuzhongyaojieriyouchunjie﹑xingchujieheneidamudeng。qizhong,neidamushimengguzuzuiweishengda、yingxiangguangfandejieri。

时时彩平台注册“neidamu”,ximengguyu“yule”huo“youxi”deyisi,meinian7﹑8yueshengchufeizhuangdejijiejuxing。dahuizhaokaishi,nannvlaoshaochuanzhejierishengzhuang,chengcheqima,yunjizaibilvfengmeidecaoyuan。tamenhuocanjiabisai,huozhuanchengganlaicanguanyule。suriningjingdecaoyuancaiqipiaopiao,renliuyongdong,niuyanghuanjiao,mumasiming,dunshibianchenghuanxiaodehaiyang。chuantongdeneidamudahuishangzhijuxingshejian﹑saimaheshuaijiaodebisai;xiandaineidamucongneironghexingshidouyoulehendadefengfuhefazhan。chulechuantongdenanersanyi——shuaijiao﹑saima、shejianbisaizhiwai,haizengtianleqitatiyujingsai﹑wenyiyanchu﹑tupianzhanlan﹑fangyingdianying﹑shishicaipingtaizhuceshengchanjingyan﹑gouhuowanhuidengneirong,tongshikaizhanjingmaohuodong,jinxingwuzishishicaipingtaizhuce,haiyaobiaozhanglaodongmofan。neidamuzheiyigulaodehuodongfazhanchengweirongwenti﹑jingmao﹑lvyouyuyitidecaoyuanshenghui,huanfachuxindehuoli。

neidamudahuishangdeshuaijiaobisai,zuiyinrenrushengdeshiminzushishuaijiao。lianseyouhei﹑shentikuiweideshuaijiaoshoushangshenchuanzhexiangyoutongdingdeheiseshuaijiaoyi“zhaodege”,xiachuanbaisejiaoku,yaoxicaichouzuochengdeweiqun,jiaodengmengguxuehuomaxue,tanxionglubei,youdejiaoshouhaizaibozishangweizhewucaibinfendeshiwu“jiangge”。dangyinlexiangqideshihou,jiaoshoumentiaozhexiongjiande“yingbu”shangchang,duifangdeshuaijiaoshouyeanzheminzugulaodechuantongfengge,huiwushuangbei,youruxiongyingzhanchi,yongshimendebodoukaishile。

saimagengxuyaoyouyongganwanqiangdejingshen。ziguyilai,menggurenminduimajiuyouteshudeganqing,tamencongxiaojiuzaimabeishangzhangda,douyizijiyongyouyipikuaimagandaozihao。xunlianliema﹑jingqishansheshimengguzumumindejueji。saimabisaikaishi,qishoumenyizipaikai,gegezhazhecaiseyaodai,touchancaijin,yangyizheqingchundehuoli。saimadeqidianhezhongdianchamangezhongxianyandecaiqi,simianbafangjulaiderendouhuijizaiqidianhezhongdian。zhitinghaojiaozhangming,qishoubianfenfenfeishenshangan,yangbiancema,yishihongjinfeiwu,rujianshiqifa。chaneijian,haoqishoujiuxiangfeijianyiyangchaoguosuoyoudeduishou,benxiangzhongdian,chengweicaoyuanshangzuiyouxiudejianer。qishouyumayibanzaixunmadeguochengzhongdoujianlilemoqideqichengguanxi,zhiyaoqishouzaihenyuandedifangdagehushao,maerjiuhuisimingzhefeibenerlai。

时时彩平台注册xiandaishehui,shuaijiaohesaimazaishenghuoheshengchanzhongdezuoyongxiangbizhixiaxueruolexuduo,danzuoweimengguzuwenhuadezhongyaozuchengbufenrengbeibaoliuxialai。

mengguzuyixiangyou“yinleminzu”﹑“shigeminzu”zhicheng。hetaodiquliuchuanyouzheiyangyijuhua:“hetaodemingeniumaoduo,changlesannian,changleyizhiniuerduo。”fanyingleneimenggumingezhiduo。menggumingekefenweizhangduandiaoliangzhongticai,menggumingechongfenfanyingchumengguzurenminzhipo﹑shuanglang﹑reqing﹑haofangdexingge,tingleshirenyouzhishenmenggucaoyuanzhigan。“haolibao”shineimengguminjianliuchuanhenguangdeyizhongyanchangxingshi,yougudingdequdiao,changcishichujingshengqingdejixingchuangzuo,shenshouqunzhonghuanying。lingwaihaiyou“mahatale(zanci)”﹑“yurele(zhuci)”﹑“dairileqi(duikouchang)”﹑shenhua﹑tonghua、chuanshuo﹑shuoshudengneironghexingshi。

时时彩平台注册matouqinshimenggurenminzuixiaideminzuleqi,yinqinganshangduandiaoyigejingzhidematouerdeming。zuizaodematouqinchengwei“xiqin”huo“huqin”,qiyuanyudonghude“xi”(jikumoxi),qingmochengzuo“chaoer”。yanzouxingshiduobanshiduzou,huoshizilazichang。matouqinlachulaideshengyinliaokuodichen,youyangdongting,fangfobarenmendaijinmangmangwubiandecaoyuan。

mengguzuwudaojiufushengming,chuantongwudaoyoumadaowu﹑kuaizi﹑andai﹑xunmashou、xiaoqingmadeng。tongguocaoyuanmashangshenghuotilianerchengdemawu,zaoxingtingbahaomai,bufasatuoqingying,zaiyihuishou、yiyangbian、yitengtiaozhijian,doushirengandaojunmadezongyuehemenggurenminpiaohan﹑yonggandexingge,juyounongyudeminzutese。

时时彩平台注册samanjiaohezangchuanfojiaoshimengguzuxinyangdezhuyaozongjiao。

samanjiaoshimengguzugulaodezongjiaoxinyang。mengguzudejitian﹑jishan﹑jizu﹑jihuo﹑jiaobao﹑jishi﹑jihe﹑jishu﹑tutengjisidengdoushuyusamanjiaodefanchou。suiranmingdaiyilai,zaimengguzuminzhongzhongguangfanchuanbodezangchuanfojiaojidadichongjilesamanjiao,danzangchuanfojiaodechuanboyebudebuxishouheronghelehenduosamanjiaodexingshiheneirong,suoyijintianmengguzudexinyangxisuzhongrengyouhenduosamanjiaodechengfen。

时时彩平台注册zangchuanfojiaohenzaojiuchuanrumenggudiqu,shimengguzuzhuyaoxinyangdezongjiao。cong13shijiyuanchaokaishi,menggufengjiantongzhijiejidegongtingzhonggaixinhongpaizangchuanfojiao,danguangdamuminrengxinsamanjiao。cong16shijihoubanye,xuduowanggongguizukaishijieshouzangchuanfojiaogelupai,bingjijizaimuminzhongchuanbo。qingdai,tebieshiqianlongyihou,duizangchuanfojiaogengcaiququanmianbaohuhejianglizhengce。qingtingbujinguligemengqixingxiudapisimiao,erqieyouhuangdiqinzichijianmiaoyu,duisenglvshangcengjiyugezhongyoudai,shouyugezhongzunguiminghaohezhixian。yushisenglvshangcengbianxingchengleyigeyushisufengjianzhubingcundepangdasenglvfengjianzhujituan。tamenbujintongzhirenmendesixiang,erqiezhanyoudaliangdetudi﹑shengchu,heshisufengjianzhujiehezaiyiqi,kongzhidangdidezhengzhihejingjishenghuo。shenzhishenkeyingxiangzhemenggurenderichangshenghuo,ruyiying﹑jiaqu﹑shenglaobingsidengdouyoulamabuxiongwenji,jietuochaodu。lamabuquqishi,bucanjiashehuishengchan,qingshaonianduobeifengjianwangchaogulilijiadanglama。zaiming﹑qingshubainianjian,mengguzusenglvrenkouzhujianzengjia,jidaquanmengguzurenkoude1/3。yirucipangdaderenkoutuolishengchan,dujueshengyu,duimengguzudeshehuishengchanherenkouzengzhidouzaochengyanzhonghouguo。lingyifangmian,suizhezangchuanfojiaodechuanbo,lamazhongdexuezhe,ruyisheng﹑zhushujia﹑huajiadengyijiguangdasenglvduimengzangzhijiandewenhuashishicaipingtaizhuceyeqidaoleyidingzuoyong。mingqingliangdaishishicaipingtaizhucelehenduolamamiao,daerhanmaominganlianheqidebailingmiao﹑xinbaerhuzuoqideganzhuermiao﹑guyangxiandewudangzhao﹑xilinhaotedebeizimiao﹑tumoteyouqidemeidaizhaodengdoushizhumingdedasimiao。

时时彩平台注册chusamanjiaohezangchuanfojiaozhiwai,lishishangmengguzuhaixinyangguojidujiao﹑yisilanjiao﹑daojiao﹑youtaijiaohemonijiaodeng。xianzairengyoushaoliangderenkouxinyangjidujiaoheyisilanjiao。

发展现状:

xinzhongguochenglihou,mengguzuqitagejujuquxianhoushixianleminzuquyuzizhi。1949nianjiangyuanliaobeishengdezhelimumengjireheshengdezhaowudameng,1950nianjiangyuanchahaershengdeduolun﹑baochang﹑huadesanxian,1954nianjiangyuansuiyuanshengxiaqufenbiehuaguineimengguzizhiqu。1956nianyoujiangyuanreheshengdewengniute﹑kalaqin﹑aohan﹑wudan﹑ningcheng﹑chifengdeng6geqixianhegansushengdebayanhaotemengguzuzizhizhouyijiejinazizhiqihuaguineimengguzizhiqu。neimengdiqu300duonianbeifengetongzhidelishijieshule。qitajujuqudemengguzuxianhouchenglizizhidifangdeyou:xinjiang2gemengguzuzizhizhou,qinghai、xinjiang﹑gansu﹑heilongjiang﹑jilin﹑liaoning、hebeideng8gemengguzuzizhixian。sanjugedidemengguzurenminyexiangshouzheminzupingdengquanli。mengguzurenminzhenzhengchengweiguojiahezijiminzudezhuren。

zhongguogongchandanggenjumengguzudiqudeminzuguanxihejiejiguanxi,zhidingleyixieshihedangdishijiqingkuangdefangzhenzhengce,tongguonongyehezuohua、duishougongye﹑chumuyehezibenzhuyigongshangyedeshehuizhuyigaizao、gaigekaifang、xibudakaifadeng,neimengguheqitamengguzujujuqudejingjifazhanchuxianleqiansuoweiyoudebianhua。

chumuyeshimengguzurenminzhangqiyilaizhuyaocongshidejingjishiye。xinzhongguochenglihou,muminmendagaoyishuicaoweizhongxindecaoyuanshishicaipingtaizhuce。zaibaohuhehelishiyongmuchang﹑xiujianpengquan﹑kaipiqueshuicaochang﹑jianlishouyiwang﹑gailiangchuzhong﹑tuiguangdingjufangmuyijituiguangmuyejixiehuafangmiandouqudehendachengji。xianzai,quanqujinyibutuixingjinmu﹑xiumu﹑lunmu﹑shesi﹑banshesidengcuoshi,cujinchumuyeshengchanjingyingfangshiyouzhongzhiyezhudaoxingxiangyangzhiyezhudaoxingdezhuanbian,zhubuzouxiangshengtaichumuyefazhandaolu。neimenggu1978nianshengchudezengzhangdadao3901wantou(zhi),2005nian,shengchucunlantoushutupole1yitou(zhi),shi1978niande2.56bei。2005nian,xinjiangbayinguolengzhoushengchucunlan421.26wantou(zhi),boertalazhoushengchucunlan123.29wantou(zhi)。

xinzhongguochengliqian,neimenggunongyeshifenluohou,gengzuocucao,nongjujianlou,liangshichanlianghendi。1946nian,liangshipingjunmuchanzhiyousansishigongjin。xinzhongguochenglihou,youqishigaigekaifangyihou,nongcundagaonongtianshuilijibenshishicaipingtaizhuce,tuixingbaochandaohudeshengchanzerenzhi,danghezhengfujiadaduixibunongcunmuqudetourulidu,chongfendiaodonglenongmumindeshengchanjijixing。2005nian,nongcunmuquzonghegaigewenbutuijin,shuifeigaigequdelishixingtupo,quanqufanweiquanbumianchunongmuyeshui,jinrongtizhigaige、liangshiliutongtizhigaigeweinongyeshengchandefazhantigonglelianghaotiaojian。dangnian,neimengguzizhiqujigengdimianji466.57wangongqing,liangshizongchanliang1662.15wandun,chuanglishizuigaoshuiping,xinjiangboertalazhounonglinmuyuyezongchanzhi18.78yiyuan,bayinguolengzhouliangshizongchandadao40.02wandun。

时时彩平台注册danshi,youyuchuantongxing﹑cufangxingnongmuyejingjiduicaochangdeguodukenzhiliyongjiziranzaihaiyingxiang,neimenggucaoyuanhuangmohuachengduyuelaiyueyanzhong。cong1998niankaishi,guojiadafuduzengjianeimenggushengtaishishicaipingtaizhucetouru,zaiquanqu96geqixianshishiletianranlinziyuanbaohu﹑jingjinfengshayuanzhili﹑tuigenghailin﹑tuimuhaicaodengyixilieshengtaishishicaipingtaizhucezhongdiangongcheng,2002niandixiudingle《zhonghuarenmingongheguocaoyuanfa》,baohucaoyuanshengtaibeitishangjinjiricheng。2004niandi,quanququedingziranbaohuqu187ge,mianjiwei1562wangongqing。2005nian,quanqusenlinfugailvda17.57%,shengtaihuanjingshixianle“zhengtiezhi,jubuhaozhuan”dezhongdazhuanbian。

guoqu,mengguzujujudiqugongyejiduanluohou,jinyoujijiaxiaofadianchangheliangshi、pimaojiagongdengshougongzuofang。xianzai,neimengguyijianliqinengyuan﹑yuancailiao﹑dianzixinxi﹑jixiezhizao﹑gangtieyelian﹑yousejinshu﹑nongchuchanpinjiagongdengxuduoxindexiandaigongyebumen,gongyejingjixiaoyixianzhutigao。qizhong,nengyuanhenongchuchanpinjiagongchengweineimenggudeliangdazhizhuchanye,yongxianleeerduosi﹑mengniuheyilideng11geguojiachimingpinpai。2005nian,quanqushengchanzongzhi3822.77yiyuan,renjunshengchanzongzhi1986meiyuan,chaoguoquanguorenjunshengchanzongzhideshuiping,quanqushengchanzongzhizhongyi﹑er、sancichanyebizhongwei15.7:44.1:40.2;xinjiangboertalashengchanzongzhi54.99yiyuan,renjunshengchanzongzhiwei12085yuan;bayinguolengzizhizhoushengchanzongzhi325yiyuan,renjungdpdadao27258yuan。

jiaotongyunshuyefazhanxunsu。neimenggudiquxingchengleyitieluweizhongxin,baokuogonglu﹑minyonghangkongheneihehangyundejiaotongyunshuwang。xinzhongguochenglichuqitieluzhiyou1557gongli,2005nian,tieluyingyunlichengda6000gongli。tongnian,dongxidatongdaoshishicaipingtaizhucekaishiqidong。quanqugaosugonglulichengtupo1000gongli,xingchengyichengshiweiyituo,guoyouganxiangongluweigujiadegonglujiaotongwang,shixianlexianxiantongboyoulu,xuduobisainongmuquhebianjingdiquyejianqilegonglu,bingkaipileyumenggu﹑eluosibianjingshengqutongchede6tiaoguojikeyunluxian。minyonghangkongshiyecongwudaoyou,qudelezhongdafazhan,you18tiaoguoneihangxianhe2tiaoguojihangxian,hangxianzonglichengda2.24wangongli,minhanglvkeniantuntuliangjin40wanrenci。xinjiangbayinguolengzhouxingchenglefugaichengxiangdekehuoyunshuwangluo,boertalazhoujingneigonglutongchelicheng3183gongli,bizizhizhouchenglishizengzhangle12bei,xiangtongyoulu,cuncuntonggonglu,zhuyaoganxianshixianboyouhua。

时时彩平台注册shangyemaoyifazhanshifenxunsu,shichangkongqianfanrong。youyucaiqulekaituonongcunshichang、kuodaxindaiguimo、jiaqiangshuishoujiandudengcuoshi,2005nian,neimengguquannianshehuixiaofeipinlingshouzongedadao1344.10yiyuan。zhengfuhaijijizuzhiquneigejingjibumencanyuhuanbohaijingjiquandengquyujingjixiezuo,jiaqiangyue、mengdejingjiwanglai,tuozhanhezuolingyu,jiakuaishishi“zouchuqu”zhanlve,duiwaikaifanghezhaoshangyinzichengxiaoxianzhu。2005nian,quanquyinjinquwaizijindaowei1097yiyuan,duiwaijinchukoumaoyichengjiaoe51.6yimeiyuan。

时时彩平台注册lvyouyechengweixinxingchanye,chengxianwangshifazhan。shehuigejiejijicanyufazhanxiandaishishicaipingtaizhuceye,xingchenglelianghaodelvyouhuanjing。lvyouyezishenzedalidazaolvyoujingpin,zhengheziyuan,tuchutese,chongfenliyongziranziyuan,xingchenglejidaleijuyouxiyinlidelvyoujingqu。2005nian,neimenggujiedaiguoneilvyourenshu2061.6wanrenci,rujinglvyourenshu100.16wanrenci。xinjiangbayinguolengzhouheboertalazhoudelvyouyeyechengweiladongjingjizengzhangdexinliangdian。

youdianshiyecongwudaoyou,baochikuaisufazhan。suizhexiandaishehuidexunsufazhanherenminshenghuoshuipingdetigao,youqishizhengfudalituijinchengzhenhuajincheng,jiaqiangchengshijichusheshihehuanjingshishicaipingtaizhuce,jiakuaishizhenggongyongshiyeshichanghuabufadeng,youqishi2004nianqidongde“cuncuntong(xinxichanyebuzuzhidezaiquanguofanweizhankailefazhannongcuntongxin、tuidongnongcuntongxinpubianshishicaipingtaizhucedehuashidaigongcheng)”gongchengshishicaipingtaizhuce,nongcundeyoudianshiyexinxinxiangrong。2005nian,neimengguyoudianyewuzongliang(2000nianbubianjia)276.1yiyuan,dianhuapujilvdadao52bu/bairen,jisuanjihulianwangyonghu107.9wanhu。

时时彩平台注册renminshourushuipingdafuzengzhang,shenghuoshuipingyoulexianzhutigao。youyudalicaiqucuoshi,tuijingexinggeyejingjifazhan,zuohaorenminjiuyeheshehuibaozhanggongzuo,suoxiaogebumenshourufenpeidechaju,tigaorenmindeshourushuiping,2005nian,neimengguchengzhenjuminrenjunkezhipeishouruhenongmuminrenjunchunshourufenbiedadao9137yuanhe2989yuan。xinjiangboertalazhounongmuminrenjunchunshouruda4056yuan,bayinguolengzhounongminrenjunshouru4268yuan。

时时彩平台注册xinzhongguochengliqian,neimenggudiqumeiyouyisuodazhuanyuanxiao,zhongxiaoxuexueshengzhizhanzongrenshude2.6%,90%yishangshiwenmang。ruoshoudaoyuanfanglaixin,shouxinrenwangwangqiluotuodailipinlianxingyiliangtianluchengqiurenyuedu。xinzhongguochenglihou,kexuewenhuajiaoyuxunsufazhan。1978nian,neimengguzizhiquyoudazhongzhuanyuanxiao95suo,putongzhongxiaoxue32174suo,shilingertongruxuelv95.2%,jibenshangpujilewunianzhijiaoyu。gaigekaifanghou,shishikejiaoxingquzhanlve,geleigejijiaoyuquanmianfazhan,jianliqibaohanleboshi、shuoshi、benke、zhuanke、zhongzhuan、zhongxiaoxuejieduandequanmiandejiaoyutixi,geleicengcidexuexiaoshulianghexueshengrenshudoudafudutigao,biyeshengyezaigexinggeyezhongdaxianshenshou。2005nian,youyanjiushengpeiyangdanwei8ge,chuzhongyishanggeleixuexiao1974suo,xiaoxue5850suo,shilingertongruxuelv99.44%,“pujiu”renkoufugailv88.4%。xinjiangboertalazhoushilingertongruxuelv99.13%,bayinguolengzhouwei99.04%。

neimengguzizhiquzhengfujijiguancheluoshizizhiquwenhuafazhangangyaohezhichiwenhuafazhandegexiangjingjizhengce,jiaqianggonggongwenhuashishicaipingtaizhucetixihewenhuajichusheshishishicaipingtaizhuce,tuijinguangbodianshideshuzihua,jiaqiang“xixingongcheng(guojiayicixingtouzizuiduodeguangbodianshifugaigongcheng)”shishicaipingtaizhuce,wenhuaxinwenshiyeyezaiwenbufazhan。2005nian,neimengguyongyougeleiyishuhewenhuadanwei1763ge,guangbodiantaihedianshitai27zuo,renkoufugailvdouzai90%yishang。zizhiquhemeng、shiliangjiquannianchubanbaozhi、zazhi、tushu34153.34fen(ce)。

时时彩平台注册mengguzuwenxueheyuyanshiyequdelehendachengji。lijiequanguoshaoshuminzuwenxuejunmajiangdouyoumengguzuzuojiadezuopinhuojiang,ru《jinsedeshangdoucaoyuan》﹑《damoge》﹑《hulaihe》﹑《qilianyoumuzi》deng。ciwai,xuduohanzuwenxuezuopinjishijiemingzhubeifanyichengmengwen。neimenggutongyongmenghanliangzhongyuyanwenzi,danghezhengfugulimengguzu、hanzujiqitaminzurenminxueximengguyuwen,tichangmengguzurenminxuexihanyuwen。2004nianzhidingle《neimengguzizhiqumengguyuyanwenzigongzuotiaoli》。

xinzhongguochengliqian,mengguzudiqudeyiliaoweishengtiaojianjiweiluohou,queyishaoyao,gezhongjibingmanyan,renkouruijian。runeimengguxilinguolemengzaiqingmoyou84000ren,dao1936nianzhishengxia39500ren。xinzhongguochenglihou,kaizhanqunzhongxingaiguoweishengyundong,dalipeiyangyiwurenyuan,jianliyiliaoweishengjigou。1978nian,yiliaoweishengjigoubi1949nianzengzhangle50.94bei,yiliaoweishengrenyuanzengzhanglejin9bei。gaigekaifanghou,youqishijinru21shijiyilai,dalicaiqucuoshijiakuaijibingyufangkongzhitixi,gaishannongcunmuquyiliaoweishengtiaojian,jijituijinnongcunmuquxinxinghezuoyiliaoshidiangongzuohechengshiyiliaoweishengtizhigaige,youhuazhenghemengyimengyaoziyuan,zuohaorenkouhejihuashengyugongzuo,guangfankaizhanquanminjianshenhuodong。2005nian,neimengguweishengjigou3774ge,weishengrenyuan10.26wanren,mengguzurenkoucongjiefangchude834400renxunsuzengjiadao421wanduo。

时时彩平台注册neimengguzizhiquzhengfujijicaiqucuoshi,luoshi“lianggequebao(quebaoguoyouqiyexiagangzhigongjibenshenghuo,quebaoqiyelituixiurenyuanyanglaojinanshizuefafang)”、chengshidibaohe“santiaobaozhangxian(guoyouqiyexiagangzhigongjibenshenghuobaozhang、shiyebaoxian、chengshijuminzuidishenghuobaozhangzhidu)”,jianlijianquanyanglao、yiliaodengshehuibaoxianbaozhangtixi,zhubutigaochengshijuminzuidishenghuobuzhushuiping,shideshehuibaozhangshiyehefulishiyefazhan。2005nian,neimenggucanjiajibenyanglaobaoxianheyiliaobaoxiandezhigongyou544.6wanren(neiyoujiaocha),75.63wanjumindedaoguojiazuidishenghuobaozhangjiuji,choucuoshehuifulizijin77309.35wanyuan。

时时彩平台注册suizheweidazuguodefanrongheqiangda,mengguzubijiangqudegengdadechengji﹑jinbuhefazhan。

(摘自《民族问题五种丛书》之《中国少数民族》卷)

 
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