时时彩平台注册

 
 

满族

ssmz_mz

 

民族概况:

manzurenkouzongshuwei1068.2wanren(2000nian),zaizhongguo55geshaoshuminzuzhongjudierwei。manzufenbuyuquanguogedi,yiliaoning、hebei、heilongjiang、jilinheneimengguzizhiqu、beijingdengsheng、zizhiqu、zhixiashiweiduo,qitasanjuyuxinjiang、gansu、ningxia、shandong、hubei、guizhoudengshengqujixian、chengdou、guangzhou、fuzhoudengdazhongchengshi。

jujuyudongbeisanshengjihebeishengdemanzu,zhuyaocongshinongye,zheixiediqushengchandadou、gaoliang、yumi、yancao、pingguohezuocandengnongchanpinhejingjizuowu。shanqutechanrencan、mogu、muerdeng,yeshimanzurenmindefuyeshengchan。dongbeisanshengdeshenyang、anshan、dalian、fushun、zhangchun、haerbindengchengshizhongdemanzuzhuyaocongshigongshanghuodong。sanjuyuquanguogedidemanzu,zhuyaoshigongren,zhishifenziyejiaoduo。

时时彩平台注册manzuyouzijideyuyan、wenzi。manyushuaertaiyuximan—tonggusiyuzumanyuzhi。manzuwenzichuangliyu16shijimo。song、jinshidai,nvzhenrencengyouguozijidewenzi,zaoqinvzhenwenzishiconghanzituotaichulaidebiaoci——yinjiewenzi,danjiuyishichuan。16shijimo,nuerhachitongyidongbeigebuhou,yimengguzimupinxiemanyuduyin,xingchengyizhongxindewenzi,chengwei“laomanwen”。huangtaijishiqiyouzaijieyongdemengwenzimushangjiaquandian,yonglaiqufenyuyin,chengweiyouquandianmanwenhuo“xinmanwen”。manwenzuoweiyizhongguanfangwenzi,zaiqingdaizhangqishiyong,yiduchengweizaiquanguofanweineiguangfanshiyongdewenzi,liuxialedaliangdanganziliao,chengweizhonghuaminzuwenhuayichanbaokuzhongdeguibao。qingzhongqiyihou,manyuzhujianbeifangqi,manzujibenshangshiyonghanyubeifangfangyan,zhiyouqirenneibuheqijiguanyuan,zaiyixietedingdechangherengranbixushiyongmanyu。dao20shiji80niandai,chuledongbeigebiebianyuandiquhexinjiangdexibozushaoshulaorenshangnengshiyongmanyuwai,manyuyijingxiaoshile。danshi,zuoweicengjingguangfanshiyongdeyuyan,manyuzaixuduodifangdehanyufangyanzhongliuxialeshenshendeyinji。jintiandongbeigedihebeijingdengdidehanyuzhong,haibaoliuyoudaliangdemanyuyuyinhecihui。liujuyuquanguogedidezhufangqirenhouyi,duocaochanzazhedangdiyuyindebeifangfangyan,xingchengyigegede“fangyandao”。

历史沿革:

dongbeidiqude“baishanheishui”shimanzudeguxiang。manzudeqiyuan,keyizhuisudaoliangqianduonianqiandesushenyijihoulaideyilou、wuji、mohehenvzhen。

sushenrenshidongbeidiquzuizaojianyujizaidejuminzhiyi,tamenshenghuozaizhangbaishanyibei,dongbindahaiyijiheilongjianghewusulijiangliuyudeguangdadiqu。sushenrenyishoulieyoumuweizhuye,shanqishe,xingyongmeng。zaozaishun、yushidai,sushenrenjiuyuzhongyuandiqujianlilelianxi。xizhouchu(gongyuanqian11shijichu)sushenbucengxiangzhouchaojinxian“hushishinu”。《zuochuan》jizai: “sushen、yan、bo”weizhoudaide“beitu”。

zhanguoyihou,sushenrengaichengyilou,youshirengyanyongjiucheng。yilourenyeyong“hushishinu”shoulie,zhongwugubingzhangyuyangzhu,nengzhimabu,huizaoxiaochuan。sanguoyihou,yilourenlvcixiangzhongyuanwangchaojingong,zhijiechenshuyuzhongyuanwangchao。“yiloudiao”zaisanguoshishidangshishehuishangdezhenpin。

时时彩平台注册nanbeichao、sui、tangshiqi,sushen、yiloudehouyi,xiangjiyiwuji、mohedemingchengchuxian,renkoufazhanduodashushigebuluo。mohehoulaifazhanweisumo、baishan、boduo、anchegu、funie、haoshi、heishuidengqibu。

时时彩平台注册tangdai,dazuorongyisumomoheweizhuti,zaisonghuajiangshangyou、zhangbaishanbeiluyidai,jianlidifangzhengquan“zhenguo”。tangkaiyuanyuannian(713nian),dazuorongbeitangchaocefengwei“bohaijunwang”,jiashou“huhanzhoudoudu”,congcibianyibohaiweihao。bohaiguodezhengzhi、junshizhidu,junantangzhijianli,shiyonghanzi。guowangdegengti,jieshoutangwangchaodecefeng。tangxuanzongshi,bohaiyutangbaochilemiqieguanxi,rutangdegongshijihumeiniandouyou,duocipaiqianxueshengdaotangdouzhangandetaixuexuexi。zhongyuandiqudezhengzhi、jingjihexianjindekeji、wenhuadeyingxiang,cujinlebohaidenongyeheshougongyedexunsufazhan,youqishiyetiehezhichougengweiyouming。

bohaijianguoqianhou,heishuimohejingchangxiangtangchaojingong。tangkaiyuanshisannian(725nian),tangchaozaiheishuimohediqusheheishuijun,suihousheheishuifu,fenbieshouheishuimohegebushoulingdoudu、cishidengguan,bingzhizhangshijianzhi,cixinglishi。yiyunhuijiangjunlingheishuijinglveshi,liyouzhoudoudu,chengweitangchaozaiheilongjiangliuyushezhidezhishudifangjigou。dangbohaiqiangshengshi,bufenheishuimoherenweiqibushu。liaowangbohaihou,nanqianbohaibumin,erheishuimohesuizhixiangnanqianxibohaigudi,zhujianqudaibohaierxing。wudaishiheishuimohechengwei“nvzhen”,liaoshiweibiliaoxingzongyelvzongzhenhui,gaichengnvzhi。cihou,nvzhenzheiyichenghudaitilemohe,yizhiyanyongdaomingdaimonian。

liaodainvzhenrendatikefenweisanbufen。juzhuzailiaodongdiqudenvzhenren,beichengweishunvzhenhuoxiliaojinvzhen;juzhuzaisonghuajiangyibeiguangdadiqudenvzhenren,beichengweishengnvzhen,huobuxiliaojinvzhen;juzhuzailiangzhezhijiandebeichengweihuiba(yizuohuihe)nvzhen。shengnvzhenzhongdewanyanbu,youyutiedechuanruheshiyong,shengchanfazhanjiaokuai。zaishoulingwanyanagudadelingdaoxia,qibingfanliaobingjianlijinchao。jinchaojianliyihou,yubeisonglianhemieliao,bujiuyounanjin,qudaibeisongwangchao,xingchengyunansongbinglidejumian。

时时彩平台注册jinchaozhanlingzhongyuandiquyihou,zhenyuanyuannian(1153nian)qiandouyuyanjing,shixing“nanqianbeixi”dezhengce,nvzhenrenzuichuqiantudaoyanshanyidai.yihoudingjuzaihuabeidiqu,erhanrenzhujianxiangbeiqianyi。dingjuzaizhongyuandenvzhenren,zaihanzuhezhouweihuanjingdeyingxiangxia,zhujianyuhanzuronghe。menggumiejinyihou.tamenbeiliezai“hanren”dengjizhong,shuomingyuhanzuyiwumingxiandechabie。liuyongzaidongbeidiqudenvzhenren,xiangduilaishuorengranbijiaoluohou。

yuandainvzhenren,yibufenjuzhuzailiaoyangdengludexiaqunei,yuhanzuzajugongchu,zhujianyuhanzuronghe;yibufensanchuzaihelanfushuidadadenglu,jiyijinheilongjiangshengyilanxianweizhongxin,fenbuyusonghuajiangliuyuheheilongjiangzhong、xiayou,dongdahaiandeguangdadiqu。yuan“sheguanmumin”,zaizheiyidaidiquxianhousheliwugewanhufuhedongzhengyuanshuaifu,zaiwusulijiangliuyushelilianggeqianhusuo,zaiheilongjiangxiayousheliwanhufu,tongguodangdiminzushangceng“yinsuerzhi”。

mingdainvzhenrenanqidiliweizhiheshehuifazhanchengdu,fenweijianzhounvzhen、haixinvzhenhedonghainvzhen(mingchengyerennvzhen)。jianzhounvzhenfenbuzaifushunyidong,yihunheliuyuweizhongxin,dongdazhangbaishandongluhebeilu,nandiyalvjiangbian。haixinvzhenfenbuyukaiyuanbianwai,huifaheliuyu,beizhisonghuajiangzhongyoudazhuanwanchu。donghainvzhenfenbuyujianzhou、haixinvzhenyidongheyibeidiqu,daticongsonghuajiangzhongyouyixia,qiheilongjiangliuyu,dongdahaian。zaishehuijingjizhangzufazhandeqingkuangxia,nvzhenrencongshoulieheyoumuzouxiangledingju,qijingjiyecongguoqudeshouliejingji,zhuanweizhuyaocongshinongye,fuzhiyishouliehecaiji。congshehuixingtaihejiejiguanxishangkan,yijingchuxianlenulizhuhenulijieji,qingrenfugezai《tingyucongtan》zhongshuo: “manzhouyoujiase,youchengbaoshijuzhimin”,“shushijuzu,zegejuchengzhai,xiaozuyizizhutunbao,huxiangxiongzhang,gechenqimin,junyouchengkuo。tuzhuxishelie,zhijiase”。mingwangchaozaiguangdadenvzhendiqushelile380duogejimiwei、suo,youzaiheilongjiangyuhenggunhehuihekouduiandetelindifang,shelinuergandouzhihuishisi,fengnvzhengebushoulingweidoudu、douzhihui、qianhu、baihu、zhenfudengzhi,jiyuchishu、yinxin、yiguanhechaobi,bingguidinglechaogongyumashideshijianyudaiyu,jiaqianglemingchaoduidongbeidiqudezhijietongzhi。mingchuyijiang,yinuergandousiweizhongxin,zaidongbeidiqujianlileliutiaojiaotongganxian,sheyizhan40duozuo,xingchenglesitongbadadejiaotongwang,jinyibucujinlenvzhenyuhanqudejingjiwenhuashishicaipingtaizhuce。

时时彩平台注册mingzhongyeyihou,nvzhengebuhuzhengxiongzhang,jingchangzhengzhan,xingchenghuxiangcanshadehunluanjumian,nvzhenrenminzaoshoulejidadetongku。qingtaizunuerhachishijianzhouzuoweimenggetiemuerdeliushisun,juyouzhuoyuedezhengzhihejunshicaineng,tashunyinglishifazhandechaoliu,kaishiletongyinvzhengebudezhanzheng。nuerhachishisuisangmu,shiwuliusuishizaiataijiabeifu,liaodongzongbinglichengliangjianqilingli,zhiyubuxia,zaijunzhonglvlizhangong。shijiusuishichengjiconglichengliangchu“yangqu”。houlairushancaijishanhuo,wanglaiyufushunmashidengchu,shuxihanrendiqudeqingkuang,shouhanwenhuayingxiangjiaoshen。taqibinghou,xianhoubeimingchaofengweizhihuishi、douzhihuishi、douduqianshihelonghujiangjundeng。congmingwanlishiyinian(1583nian)qi,nuerhachixianhouyong11nianshijian,tongyilejianzhounvzhen,bingcuobaiyehedeng9bulianjunsanwanrendejingong。wanlisishiyinian(1613nian),youjianbinglehaixinvzhenzhongdehada、huifahewulasanbu。yucitongshi,zaiduidonghaizhubudeyongbingzhong,yebuduandiqudeshengli。zai30duonianshijianzhong,nuerhachijiangdongzhihaibin、xidakaiyuan、beidinenjiangliuyu、nanzhiyalvjiangguangdadiqufensandenvzhengebuquanbutongyiqilai。

时时彩平台注册nuerhachizaitongyinvzhengebudeguochengzhong,caiquleyixiliefazhanjingjidecuoshi,jiaqiangleyuhanqudelianxi,cujinlenvzhenshehuidejingjifazhan,chuxian“manzhouminyinguofu”dejumian。tongshi,zaizhengzhihejunshishangjinxinggaige,wanlishiwunian(1587nian),zaierdaohepanjianlifeialacheng,liuyue“dingguozheng”,quelilebaohusiyoucaichandefalv。zaitongyinvzhengebudeguochengzhong,nuerhachiduishouliezuzhiniulu,jinxinglechuangzaoxingdegaizao,jianlilezhumingdebaqizhidu,duihoujinjiqingwangchaodelishi,yijimanzushehuilishidefazhan,chanshenglezhongdayingxiang。mingwanlisishisinian(1616nian),nuerhachizaihetuala(jinliaoningxinbinmanzuzizhixian)jianlidajinguo,zicheng“yingminghan”,shichenghoujin。houzaitongyinvzhengebuheduimingchaodezhanzhengzhong,xianhoujiangdouchengqianzhiliaoyangdongjingchengheshenyang。tianmingshiyinian(1626nian),qingtaizonghuangtaijijiweihou,gaiyuan“tiancong”。baqimengguhebaqihanjunzaizheiyishiqiluxuzujianwancheng。tiancongshinian(1636nian)huangtaijigaiguohao“daqing”,jianyuanchongde。nuerhachihehuangtaijiweigongguhefazhanhoujinzhengquan,jinxinglejianchibuxiedenuli,weiqingchaotongyiquanguodiandinglejichu。

时时彩平台注册qingshunzhiyuannian(1644nian),qingjunruguan,zhubutongyiquanguo,congcikaishilemanzuguizuduiquanguodetongzhi。

qingchu,zaihanzufengjianzhidudeyingxiangxia,manzuzaiguanwaijiyoudenulizhihenongnuzhijiasuxiangfengjiandizhujingjizhuanhua。zheigezhuanbianguocheng,chongmanlejiliedejiejidouzheng,yebaokuolezishangerxiadegaige。man、hantongzhijiejizhubujiehe,jiejimaodunheminzumaodunquyuhuanhe,shehuijingjiyejiancihuifubingzouxiangfanrong。kangqianshengshi,guoneianding,jiangyukongqianliaokuo,fengjianjingjifazhan,renkoujizeng,minzuguanxirongqia。

时时彩平台注册kangxichu,zhanjunanfangshushengdewusangui、gengjingzhong、shangkexi“sanfan”,jianchenggejuzhishi,duiguojiadetongyizaochengjidadeweixie。kangxidiguoduanjuedingchefan,zaiquanguorenmindezhichixia,zhankailepingdingsanfandezhanzheng。jingqimanzu、gedizhufangbaqi、naizhidongbeisanshengdebaqirending,duoyoudiaowangqianxiancanzhande,weipingpanhegongguguojiadetongyilixiagongji。17shiji,shaezaiwoguoxibeibianjiangdiqugoujiemengguzhungaerbugaerdanhan,buduanjingonghesaoraomenggudiqu,kangxiershijiunian(1690nian),gaerdanyidubijinneimengguwulanbutongdiqu,jubeijingjinqibaili,jingshizhendong。yuqinwangfuquanlvbaqijun,zaiwulanbutongyugaerdanzhankaidaguimojizhan,jibaigaerdanbu。kangxisanshiwunian(1696nian),kangxidiqinlvdajun,zaizhaomoduodiquyugaerdanpanjunjuezhan,jibenjianmielepanjunzhuli,qudelepingpanzhanzhengdejuedingxingshengli。cihou,jingyongzhengzhiqianlong70niandedouzheng,cuihuilezhungaerguizujituanfenlieshili。zaizheichangchixushushiniandezhanzhengzhong,baqiguanbingdaliangkaifuzhanchang,yingyongfenzhan,weihulezuguotongyi。

时时彩平台注册zaibaoweizuguobianjiang,zhizhiwaiguoqinlvefangmian,manzuyezuochulezijidegongxian。17shijizhongyeyihou,shaebuduanqinruwoguoheilongjiangliuyu。kangxiershisinian(1685nian),kangxidipaiqianmanzudoutongpengchunlvlingbaqibingheshuishi,quzhushaeqinlvezhe,baoweileguojialingtuzhuquan,baohuledangdirenmin。1689nian,zhongeliangguozaipingdengjichushangqiandingle《zhongenibuchutiaoyue》,huadingleguojie,cihouliangguobianjiediqubaochileyibaiduoniandezhengchangguanxi。qianlonghouqi,yingguozhiminzhezhichixiadekuoerkatongzhizhe,wuzhuangjingongxizangdiqu,qianlongwushiliunian(1795nian),qingpaiqianmanzudaxueshifukangandenglvdajunruzang,zaixizangrenmindezhichixia,jibailekuoerka,baozhanglexizangbianjingdeanquan,fensuileyingguozhiminzhedeyinmouhuodong。19shijichu,yingguozhiminzheyouzhishizhanggeerduocijinraoxinjiangbianjingdiqu,daoguangdiqianmanzudaxueshizhanglinglvxinjiangman、hanbingyingji,bingdiaodongbeijigedizhufangqirenchiyuan,huozhuozhanggeer,zaiyicifensuileyingguozhiminzheqinduozhongguolingtudeqitu。

时时彩平台注册kangqianshiqi,zhongguobantudongqikuyedao,nanjicengmuansha,xidacongling,xibeizhibaerkashenhu,beikuadamo,dongbeilianwaixinganling,jiangtuyue1250duowanpingfanggongli,fuyuanliaokuodeduominzuguojiajinyibugonggu。

时时彩平台注册1840nianyapianzhanzhenghou,zhongguolunweibanzhimindibanfengjianshehui。manzutongquanguogezurenminyidao,weibaoweizuguoduliweihuminzuzunyan,tongwaiguozibendiguozhuyiqinlvezhejinxingleyingyongkangzheng,fuchulexianxueyushengmingdedaijia。

时时彩平台注册1842nian5yue,yingguoqinlvezhequanlijingongliangzhehaifangzhongzhenzhapu,zheiliyeshiqingdaibaqizhufangdizhiyi。zhushouzaizhapuchengjiaotianzunmiaodeqibing,zaizuolinglongfudelvlingxia,lianxujituiyingjundewucijingong,shashangdaliangdijun,jibiyingjunshibatuantanglinxunzhongxiao。276mingmanzuguanbing,jihuquanbuxisheng,shenzhiwaiguojizaiyerenweizhapumanbingshiwanqiangdezhanshi。7yue,yingjunjingongzhenjiang,zhushoudangdideqibing1000yuren,zaifudoutonghailingdelvlingxia,shusifenzhan,chengxianhouyoujianchixiangzhan,zhongyinliliangxuanshu,quanbuzhuangliexunguo。engesizaizanyangzhenjiangshoujundeyingyongjingshenshizhichu: “ruguozheixieqinlvezhedaochudouzaodaotongyangdedikang,tamenjueduidaobulenanjing。”dierciyapianzhanzhengzhong,shaezhiminzheqiangzhanwoguodongbeibianjiang100duowanpingfanggonglidelingtu,dangdiman、hangezurenmin,weihanweizuguolingtu、fanduishaeqinlvehezhimintongzhi,jinxingleyingyongdouzheng。1894nianzhongrijiawuzhanzhengzhong,rijunqinzhanwoguoliaodongdapianlingtu,jiqidangdihan、man、chaodenggezurenmindeqiangliefankang,tamenfenfenzuzhituanliankangjirijun,manzukuifu、xishoudengdoushizhumingdetuanlianshouling。zaibaoweiliaoyangdezhandouzhong,man、hanrenminyingyongdikang,yiyuezhinei4cicuobairijunjinfan。1900nianyihetuanyundongbaofa,beijing、dongbeisansheng、hebeiheshandonggedimanzurenmin,jijitoushenfandiaiguodouzheng。dongbeichongxinyihetuandemanzufudoutongjinchang,lvlingbaqishibing(yuzijun)shubaiming,yijugongxiafaguojiaotang,qiangshazhongguobaixingdefaguorenjilongyebeiyihetuanchusi。1911nian,xinhaigemingbaofa,manzuyonghugemingzhebuzaishaoshu。guangzhou、chengdoudengdidezhufangbaqi,yugemingdangrendachenghepingxieyi;hangzhou、jingzhoudengdidezhufangqiren,cengyugemingjunyouguoduanzanjiaohuo,danhenkuaijiuzhuanweihepingjiejue;zaidongbeigedi,manzubaohuanan、hexiuzhaidenglingdaolefengchengdengdidewuzhuangqiyi;manzuzhishifenzibaokun、tianyabinyutongmenghuiyuanzhangrong(hanjunqiren),zaifengtianzuzhile“lianhejijinhui”,tichushishicaipingtaizhuce“manhanlianhegonghezhengti”dezhuzhang。manzurenminguangfandicanyuxinhaigeming,biaominglemanzurenminzaifankangfengjiantongzhidedouzhengzhong,yuquanguogezurenminzaijiejiliyishangdeyizhixing。

时时彩平台注册xinhaigeming,qingtingfuwang,qiyingjiesan,liangxiangtingfa,baqizhiduchedikuatai,duimanzudeyingxiangshijudade。baqizhidujiasuodedapo,shimanzucongbeishaoshuguizunuyi、qushihezhanzhengdeshenghuozhongjiefangchulai,danzaijunfatongzhishiqiyanzhongminzuqishidebeijingxia,tamenconglaixiangershizhuanxiangzimoushengji,jinglileyigetongkudeguocheng。ercongjunfatongzhidaoguomindangshiqi,dongdangbuandeshehuizhuangtaiyijiribendiguozhuyiduihuaqinlve,gengjiajulemanzudekunku。

时时彩平台注册shenghuozainongcunzhongdemanzu,yidongbeidiquguangdanongcunjiaoweijizhong,tamenyuhanzurenminyiyang,shenshoudiguozhuyi、fengjiandizhuhefandongjunduidezhongzhongyapo,shenghuozhuangtaitongkubukan。qingmoyilaidongbeinongcunzhongdeqidigaodujizhongzaijishaoshudedizhushouzhong,shiqutudidemanzurenminliulishisuo。genjudongbeisanshengyixiemanzujujudidediaocha,zhanrenkouzongshu10%zuoyoudedizhu、funongzhanyoubaifenzhi70%yishangdetudi。zuzhongdizhutudidemanren,tudijiaohaodeyaoyudizhuduibanfenliang,tudijibodezeyudizhusiliuhuosanqifenliang。jiaozuzhiwai,haiyaoweidizhugangezhongzahuo。pinkudemanzurenminruyutianzairenhuo,budebuxiangdizhu、gaolidaizhejieqian,shoudaocankudegaolidaipanbo,yibannianxisanzhibafenbudeng。gugongsuoshoudeboxuegengzhong,laodongshijianzhang,zaochenqiwugeng,wanshangdiandengwan,gongqianquehenshao。jufengchengxiandeshididiaocha,zhanggongyiniandeshouruzuiduobuchaoguo100yuan(jiubi)。daduangong、linggongdeshourugengshao,meitianzhinengshouruwuliujiao。jishiruci,daolenongxianjijieduangonglinggongyenanzhaodaoguzhu,shoudaoshiyedeweixie。ciwaihaiyoukejuanzashui,xinhaigemingyihou,nongcunzaifandongjunfahediguozhuyishilidetongzhixia,shuizhongduoruniumao,menhufei、xiehefei、jianxiaofei、zafei、zonghefeideng,zheixiejiqichenzhongdekejuanzashuiyoubixuzaizhidingdeshijianneijiaowan,fouzejiuyaobeifa、beida,shenzhibeizhuajinlaoyu。riweishiqi,ribendiguozhuyigao“kaituotuan”jingyingnongye,bazhanlenongcundapiantudi,manrenshenghuogengjiabeican。zairibenrenshixingde“liangguchuhezhidu”xia,qiushouhou,nongmindesuoyoushouchengjunxushangjiao,ranhoukao“peijizhi”fajiliangshilaishenghuo,zaidizhu、cunzhang、tunzhanghepeijidianlaobandecengcengkekouxia,liangshidaonongminshouzhongsuoshengwuji。haiyaoweiriweifubingyi,zuolaogong。niumaburudelaogongshenghuoduoqulexuduorendeshengming。xiuzhumimijunshigongchengdelaogong,wangonghoujibeijititusha。

shenghuozaichengshizhongdemanzu,zaidongbeizhuyaojizhongzaidongbeigedachengshizhong,zairibendiguozhuyiheguanliaomaibanzibenkaibandegongkuangqiyezhong,man、hangezugongrenzaoshoucankuboxue,gongzijidi,suishishoudaojiangongderenyilingru。erqie,gongkuangzhonggezhongshigupinfa,shengmingyequefabaozhang。

时时彩平台注册neidigeshengdemanzu,zhuyaoshijingqimanzuhegedizhufangbaqidehouyi,jizhongzaizhufangdijiqizhouweidedaxiaochengshizhong。zaijingjidiqu,qingshiguizu、gaoguanhouyizhong,jishaoshuliyongzuchankaibanleyixieshangpu,duoshurenkaochumaifangchan、zhubao、zihuaweisheng,zuochishankong。1931nian9yue,beipingbaokanchuxian“tiemaoziwanglayangche”dexinwen。guoqudehuangqinguoqiyeyouzaijietoudaxiaogu、maipolanweishengde。xiacengmanzurenshenghuogengweibeican,duoshudanggongren、dalinggong、chefu、shougongyezhe、xiaoshangfanhegongjiaorenyuan,zaijunfaheguomindangtongzhixiaguozhechaobubaoxideshenghuo。cihou,minzuqishiyanzhongdeqingkuangxia,manzurenbeipogaiweihanzu,fouzebushizhaobudaohukouzhichu,bianshidiudiaoyiyoudegongzuo、zhiwu。tamenbeipoyinniminzuchengfen,liuxisifang。guangzhoumanzu,zuoxiaoshangfanheshougongyezhezhanyoulaodongnenglirenkoude60%yishang,chengdou、jingzhoudengdi,zuolinggong、larenlichedengyechengweimanzurendezhuyaozhiye。meiyougudingshouru,jingchangshiye,shenghuokunkubukan。gedimanzuzhongzhishifenzibushao,yibanshigongjiaorenyuanhekexueyishugongzuozhe,zaiminzuqishidehuanjingzhong,tamengongzuojibuwending,gongziweibo,jiashangwujiafeizhang,shenghuoyeshifenkunnan。

时时彩平台注册zaikangrizhanzhenghejiefangzhanzhengzhong,manzurenminyongyuecanjia,weizhongguorenmindejiefangshiyezuochulezijidegongxian。1931nian“jiuyiba”shibianhou,manzurenminxunsuxianqilekangrirechao,fenfencanjiayiyongjun、kangrihuijihongseyoujiduidengzuzhi,caiqugezhongxingshidajiribenqinlvezhehehanjian。hongseyoujiduizaizhandouzhongriyizhuangda,lianheqitakangriwuzhuang,yu1935nianchenglikangrilianjun,zhuanzhandongbeigedi,dapimanzurenmincanjiakangrilianjun,shizhangyishangdemanzujianglingjiuyouwangguangyu、zhanglansheng、chenhanzhang、guanhuaxin、yijunshandeng,tamenzaizhongguogongchandangdepeiyanghelingdaoxia,chengweikangrilianjundegugan,zaikangrizhanzhengzhongjianlilegongxun。quanmiankangzhanbaofahou,guangdamanzurenminjijizhiyuanbalujun、xinsijundengkangrililiang,jianchikangrizhanzheng。manzuguanxiangyingcengrenbalujun120shizhengwei,canyukaifajinsuikangrigenjudidegongzuo。houyousuihelongtingjinjizhong,gonggujizhongpingyuankangrigenjudi,chengweizhongguorenminjiefangshiyezhongdejiechuzhihuiyuanhewuchanjiejigemingjia。

gongyuan12shiji,jinchaonvzhenrenzhong,chuxianleyizhongshehuizuzhi,chengwei“menganmouke”。menganweibuluodanwei,moukeweishizudanwei。qichu,1mengankebaokuo8zhi10gemouke,qishoulingchengwei“bojilie”。jinchaojianliqian,dingzhiweimei300huwei1mouke,10moukewei1mengan。menganmoukebujinshijunshizuzhi,yeshibingminyitideshehuizuzhi。suoyouzuzhichengyuan,chuzeweibing,ruzeweimin,bingzhanyouyidingdetudi。jinchaozuigaotongzhizhetongguozongshi、jianglingkongzhizhemenganmoukezuzhi。jinruzhongyuanhou,menganmoukezhiduyoutuiguangyu“guifujiangren”,baokuohanrenheqidanren。jinxizongzaiweiqijian(1135-1137nian)fazhanweijunshi、shengchanhedifangxingzhengjigousanweiyitidefengjianhuazuzhi。anjinchaoguanzhi: menganweicongsipin,zhangguanjunwu,xunlianwuyi,quankenongsang,bingtongzhufangyuzhoudefangyushiyiyang,fuyou“fanghanbuyu,yuzhidaofu”derenwu。moukeweicongwupin,zhangfujijunhu,xunlianwuyi,bingfuyouchubuguanlichangpingcangzhiwaixianlingsuoyoudezhiquan。moukezhixiafenshecunzhai,50huyishangshezhaishi1ren,yianbihukou,cuidufuyi。menganmoukerenhupingshizaixunlianzhiyu,congshinongyeshengchan。youzhanshizedingzhuangjieshouzhengfa,zizhianmaqixiechuzheng;qijiakourengliujiashengchan。menganmoukezhidu,zuoweinvzhenzuchuangjiandeyizhongjunzhengheyideshehuizuzhihezhidu,zaiduiwaizhanzhengyuduineitongzhidengfangmian,youqishizaiqianqi,cengqidaozhongyaozuoyong: cujinledangshifensandenvzhengebujiechengweiyigetongyidenvzhenzu;zaimieliaogongsongzhanzhengzhong,dadazengqianglenvzhenbingdezhandouli;zaimenganmoukezuzhixiadedapinvzhenrenxunsuqiandaoxinzhanlingdiqutunzhu,gongguleduixinzhengfudiqudetongzhi;tongshi,duiyudaliangxinzhengfudifangcaiyongmenganmoukebianzhi,jianruoledangdirendefankang。cihou,fensangedidenvzhenmenganmoukehuwangwangjiangsuoshoutiantuzuyuhanzudiannonggengzuo,shouqudizu。menganmoukebushishengchanyoushuyuxunlian,zhandoulizhujianshuairuo。tayuhoujinjiqingdaidebaqizhidupoyouleisizhichu。

时时彩平台注册qingtaizunuerhachizaitongyinvzhengebudeguochengzhong,duishouliezuzhiniulu,jinxinglechuangzaoxingdegaizao,jianlilezhumingdebaqizhidu。niuluyuanweinvzhenrenshizuzhishiqideshengchanhejunshizuzhi,xingjunhuochulieshi,geyisuoshuzu、zhaixingjin,meishirenweiyigexingjindanwei,she“niuluezhen”weishouling(niulushijian,ezhenshizhudeyisi)。nuerhachizaicijichushangjinxingtongyizuzhi,guidingmeisanbairenbianweiyiniulu,youniuluezhen(zuoling)guanliqineibuyiqieshiwu。meiwuniuluweiyijiala,sheyijialaezhen(canling),meiwujialasheyigushanezhen,jiqizhu(houchengdoutong)。wanliershijiunian(1601nian)chushehuang.hong、lan、baisiqi,sishisannian(1615nian)youzengshexianghuang、xianghong、xianglan、xiangbaisiqi,heweibaqi。youqingyidai,niulujirenshushiyoubianhua,danqizhishizhongweibian。tiancongjiunian(1635nian),huangtaijibazhongduodemenggujiangzhonghebianzaibaqimanzhouxiadeyibufenmengguren,zhengshibiancheng“baqimenggu”。congtiancongwunian(1631nian)daochongdeqinian(1642nian),youzhububianjianlebaqihanjun。zhici,baqizuzhidesangebufencaizuihouwancheng,baqimanzhou、mengguhehanjun,tongshuyutongyishehuizuzhi——baqizhixia。

时时彩平台注册baqizhiduzuoweiyizhongshehuiyuzhengzhiheyi、bingminheyidezuzhi,duiyuyouxiaodizuzhiminzhongjinxingzhanzheng,duiqingtongyiquanzhongguo,qidaolezhongyaozuoyong。qingruguanhou,baqizuzhidedaojinyibujiaqiang。ruguanshidebaqizhuli,dabanliuzaibeijing,jiangjingchengdeneicheng,quanbuzuoweibaqirenkoudezhudi;liuzaiguanwaidongbeidifangdebaqirenkou,chengweishengjingzhufangheninggutazhufang;yihouluxupaiwangneidigeshengdebaqi,chengweizhishengzhufang;kangxizhiqianlongshiqi,jibailexinjianggebudefenlieliliang,youluxujianlileyiwulumuqi、yilidengdiweizhongxindebaqizhufangtixi,chengweixinjiangzhufang。quanguogeditongdoudayi、guanjinyaodaojunyoubaqizhufang,bingfuzhihanzuweizhutidelvyingjundui,xingchengleyibeijingweizhongxin,yibaqiwuzhuangweijichudeduiquanguodekongzhitixi。

时时彩平台注册qingdaimanzurenminjibendoushenghuozaibaqizhiduzhixia,manzubingdingcanjialeyouqingyidaijihusuoyouzhanshi,tamenyifangmianweizijidexianshihehezhangonggandaojiaoao,lingyifangmian,tamenweizhanzhengfuchulejudadexisheng。qingdaimanzushehuishenghuodezuidabianhuazhiyi,shibaqibingdingyouguoquguanwaishiqideqidizhi,zhuanbianweiruguanhoudeqixiangzhi。baqishibingminheyidezuzhi,yuanzeshangsuoyouchengniannandingdoushishibinghuoyubeibing,ruguanqianshisandingchouyiweibing,suizherenkoudefanyan,kangxishiwudingchouyi,yihouyoubadingchouyi,shiwudingchouyideng,zhanzhengjinzhangshikenenghuiquantipijiashangzhen,shenzhifunvyeyaochengdannonggeng、zhanzhengdehouqinbaozhangdengshiwu。erqijibenshenghuolaiyuan,shikaobaqifenjiyidingshuliangdeqidi。qididechanchu,bujinyaofudanqibingjiqijiashudeshenghuo,haiyaochengdanqibingchuzhengsuoxudexingzhuangjiaxie。ruguanhou,baqibingdingan“jikoushoutian”dejiuzhi,yezaijingjidiqudedaoyifentiandi,danzhanshipinfa,bingdingmengenbenwuxiagengzhong,yebuyuangengzhong,tongshidishaorenduodehanzudiquyebukenengtigongzugoudetudifenpeijitamen,yushicongruguanshi,qingwangchaokaishijibaqibingdingfafangxiangyinheyuemi,bingxiangchengweibaqirenkoudejibenshenghuolaiyuan。yibanbingdingdexiangmi,biaomianshangkanshifenghoude,danzaichengdanzhanshiwuqiyumapidengkaizhijijiashudeshenghuohou,jiubukuanyule。zhenggeqingdai,baqibingeyizhimeiyouzengjia,erbaqirenkoudaliangzengzhang,daliangdeqineichengdingbunengjishitiaobudangbing,daozhiyifenbingdingdeyinmiyaoyanghuoyidajiarenkoudeqingkuang。eranzhaobaqizhidudeguiding,qineirenkoubudecongshinong、gong、shanggeyeyimoushengji。erqie,qirenyebunengsuiyilikaisuozhudifang,guidingjingqirenkoubunenglikaizhudisishili,gedizhufangqirenbunenglikaizhudi20li。zheijiushiqingdaishehuiyanzhongde“baqishengji”wentideyoulai。xiacengqibingzaibaqizhiduxiariqupinkunhua,qingtingsuirancaiquduoxiangcuoshi,litujiejuezheiyiwenti,danqizhizuoweibubiandegenbenguoce,qibingdepinkunjiuwufagaibian。congjiejidejiaodushuo,xiacengqibingyugezulaodongrenminyiyang,yeshibeitongzhijieji。

zaijunshizhengzhishang,baqijunduishiqingzhengquancunzaidejishi。congminzhengfangmiankan,baqizhidushiqingdaiqi、minfenzhideyouxiaoshouduan。zaiqingchuminzumaodunjiaoweijianruideqingkuangxia,baqizhidujiangbaqirenkouyuhanzufenli,yidingchengdushanghuanheleminzumaodun。qingzhongyeyihou,qiyumindefenge,yeshifangzhibaqirenkouxiaorongyuhanzuwangyangdahaizhongdeshouduanzhiyi。danshi,yigeminzu,quanminjiebing,huoyubeibing,huobingyuanjiashu,buzhuncongshinong、gong、shanggeyemousheng,duiyumanzuweizhutideqixiarenkoulaishuo,yeshiyanzhongdeshufu,zuizhongchengweiminzufazhandejiasuo。qingzhongyeyihou,“baqishengji”chengweiqingdaiyanzhongdeshehuiwentihezhengzhiwenti。taipingtianguohou,qingtingcaizhengweijiyanzhong,baqiliangxiangbunengzuefafang,baqirenkoushenghuogengjiakunnan。cizhongqingkuangkeyijiandandiguinawei: renkouzengjiaerbingebuzengjia,wujiazengzhangerliangxiangfanjianshao。xinhaigemingqijian,chengdouzhufangqixiangxinchenglidejunzhengfubaogaoqirenqingkuangshuo: “hechengqizuyueyiwansiqianyuren,qizhongnengzilizhebuguoshifenzhiyi、er,yujiejiawuhengchan”。tingxiangyijiu,zhaitaigaozhu,“qirenshushouwuce,husuwumen。”congminzuzhangyuanfazhandejiaodushuo,baqizhiduyichengweimanzufazhandeyanzhongzhigu。

风俗文化:

时时彩平台注册manzushigeqinlao、yonggan、zhihuideminzu.yeshiyigeshanyuboshouwailaiwenhuabingronghuichuangxindeminzu。zaizhangqidelishifazhanzhong,xingchengfuyouminzutesedefengsuwenhua。

时时彩平台注册manzuchengxingshiweihala(hala),fengfuerfuza,jifuminzuwenhuatese。zuichu,yigehalajiushiyigemukun(jiazu)。houlaisuizherenkoufanyan、jiazufenzhiyusuirenzhufangdiaowangbiechu,yuanlaidemukunyoufenhuachushugexinmukun。yibanyigemukunzhiyouyigehala,danyeyoushugemukunshuyutongyihaladeqingkuang。lishijizai,manzuxingshiyou600duoge,zaiwoguogeminzudexingshizhong,jinciyuhanzu。yuqitalishiyoujiudeminzuyiyang,manzuxingshideqiyuankezhuisudaoyuangudetutengchongbai,danjiuhoulaidefazhankan,zhuyaoyouyijuzhudiweishiheyibuzuweishiliangzhong。nvzhenrenwangwangyigemukunjujuyichu,songyuanyihou,youshenshoumengguzudeyingxiang,suoyichengmingerbuchengxing。qingruguanhou,minzuguanxibuduanfazhan,hanjunqirenduoyouyongmanzuchengmingbuchengxingdefangshimingmingde,ermanzhouqirenshenshouhanzuwenhuaxisudeyingxiang,youhenduoyonghanziweixingshi,ruguaerjiashiyiyinyigaichengweiguanxing,niuhulushiyiyiyigaichenglang(lang),yiergenjueluo,youchengminjueluo,gaihanchengweizhao。yeyoujiangmanxinghanyuyinyidediyigezizuoweixingshide,rutongjiashijianchengtong,majiashijianchengma,haiyoutu、de、da、bao、hu、a、zhao、xi、budengxingshi,daduoshushijiangyuanlaidemanxing,yonghanzilaijinxingjiancheng。duiyuzheizhongqingxing,qingtongzhizheshifenbuman,qianlongyihou,qingzhengfuduociyanlingjinzhi,danbingmeiduodaxiaoguo。xinhaigeminghou,juedaduoshudemanzuren,pubianyonghanzixing,huoniegaihanxing,shitarenbuzhiqiweimanzu,yizhiyujintianhenduomanzurenyijingbuzhidaozijidelaoxingle。

manzujiqixianminzhangqijuzhuzaishanlindiqu,jingyuqisheshitamendeteji,yezaitamendeshenghuoxisuzhongdaxiashenshendeluoyin。manzuyuersuoyongdeyaoche,zhidaojintian,henduonongcunrengranyanyong。ertongchushengshi,xuangongjianyumenqian,xiangzhengzhetaweilaiyaochengweiyigeyouxiudesheshou。liu、qisuishi,jiyimuzhigongjianlianxishehu,shaozhang,jiuqimapeijianchichengshanlin。nvrenzhibianbuyayunanzi,guniangchujia,gong、jian、lupifushibibeizhipin,jiehunshidetiandizhuoshangyaochashanggonghejian。jiaochejinmen,xinlangyaoshesanzhijian。manzuergeyuminyaozhongyeliuxialeshenshendeshoulieshenghuodehenji。

时时彩平台注册manzudefushi,nanzizitoudinghoubanbuliufa,shubianchuiyunaohou,qingruguanhou,qiangxingzaiquanguotuiguang,shizhichengweiqingdaiman、han、menggezudegongtongfashi。nvzifashi,younianshiqiyunanhaiyiyang,shaozhang,zainaohouliuyouyigenhuolianggenbianzi,jiehunshikailianshangtou,daidianzi。pingshi,zaitoudingpanji,youjiazitou、liangbatoudengyangshi。peidaierhuan,youyiersanhuandedingshi。nanzidepaogualiangcekaicha,yaozhongshudaibianyuqishe。qizhongde“jianxiu”(manyu: waha)biejutese,shizaizhaixiukoushangjieyigebanyuanxingdexiutou,xingrumati,sucheng“matixiu”,pingshiwanqi,dongjidaliehuozuozhanshifangxia,fugaishoubeiyiyuhan,houlaichengweiqingchaolijiezhongdeyigeguidingdongzuo。shaofuchuankuandadezhitongqipao,tianzu,zhehuaxie,youhuapendihechuanxingdidengyangshi。zaoqi,furenduochuanmabuyifu,qiongrenyongpaolupiweiyi。jinruliaoshenyihou,guizufurenchuanchouduan,pingminzezhebuyi,fushiyedengjihuale。ruguanyihou,manhanfuzhuangzhujianquyuyizhi,nanzisuofudekanjiandengzhijinrengyouyanyong,ernvziqipaolijingyanbian,xianyichengweiwoguochuantongnvzhuangdedaibiao。

manzushipinyejifutese,lilaiyou“mandianhancai”zhishuo。zuinengdaibiaoman、hanzuyinshiwenhuajiaorongdemoguoyu“manhanquanxi”。qicaiyaoxuanliao、zhizuohechifashangdoubaochizhemanzutese,qizhongshanzhenruhoutoujun、xiongzhang、rencan、lurongdengdadoushilaizidongbeidiqu。tashimandianyuhancaironghedejingpin,zaiqingqianlongshiqijiuyichengxing,liuchuanleerbaiyunian,qianlongjian《yangzhouhuafanglu》suozai,yangzhoudifangde“manhanxi”,yiyoucaidian100yudaole。richangshenghuozhong,manzuminjianhaiyouxuduofengweixiaochihezhongleifanduodedianxin。xihuanchixiaomi、huangmiganfanyuhuangmibobo(doubao),meifengguojieshichi“aijigebo”(jiaozi)。meidangyinlichuxi,wanfanchimanzuduyoudefengweishipinbaizhuzhurou,zhizhuroujigaodianzhongzhijinyoucunde“saqima”deng。jintianzhongguobeifangdejiaozi、huoguo、suancai、jingweigaodiandengjunyumanzuyinshiwenhuayouzheyuanyuanguanxi。

manzudezhufang,yuanluoweiyiaiqiang,yuanneiyouyingbi。shineiyibanyouxi、zhong、dongsanjian,xijianchengxishangwu,zhongjianshichufang,dongjianchengdongxiawu,damenchaonan。ruliangjianzhengfang,waiwushichufang,anzhiguozao。liwuyousanpukang,xikangweigui,gongyouzuzongshenwei,xiqiangshangyouzuzongshenban。beikangweida,nankangweixiao。jiazhonglaikezhuxikang,jiazhongzhangbeiduozhubeikang,xiaobeikezhunankang。manzugaifangduokainanchuanghexichuang,dongnuanxialiang。

manzujiushihunyinzhongshimendi,shengxingzaohunhequdalingnv。zheiyuqineinanzidangbingchuzheng,xiwangzaoyuzinvyouguan。guizuguanhuanrenjia,shengxingzhihun,duoyouchaotingzhidingjiehunduixiang,yibanqirenyeyouyouzuzhangzhihundeqingkuang。qingdaigongtingde“xuanxiu”,shiweihuangdijiqinwangxuanfei,yibanxiandingzaibaqisanpinguanneibulinxuan。baqineinannvnianlingdaoshiliu、qisui,jikedinghun,nanzidinghunyujiehunnianlingkenenggengxiaoyixie。hunyinyoufumubaoban,nanfangqingmeirendaonvfangshuoqin,xianhouyaoqusanci。meicidouxiedaiyipingjiu,daodisancicainengzhidaoshifouchenggong。suoyiyoujusuhua“chengbucheng,sanpingjiu”。ruguochengle,nvfangfumuxiangnanfangyaocaili,zhu、jiu、gui、yifu、shoushideng。nanfangsongdecaili,quanbuzuoweiguniangdecaichan。jiushimanzujiehunguochengjiaoweifanduo,youyihun、xiaoding、dading、guoli、songrizi、kaisuo、songjiazhuang、yingqu、zuozhang、hejin、fendaxiao,huimenhezhuduiyueyizhengtaoguocheng。jiehunshi,xinniangyaozaidongfangkangshangzuozhangyiri,chengwei“zuofu”。wanjianzaidishangfangyizhuozi,zhuoshangfanglianggejiuhuhejiuzhong,xinlangxinniangshouwanshou,raozhuozisanquanhouyinjiu。kangshangdianranyiduilazhu,tongxiaobuxi,fangwaiyirenhuoshurenchangxige,mingyue“lakongjia”,huoyourenyongheidouwangxinfangchuanghushangsa,renaoyilianggexiaoshihouzisan。sanrihouxinlangxinnianghuiniangjia。

时时彩平台注册manzuzhongshilijie。guoqushaobeiduilaobeishisantianyixiaoli,wutianyidali。shaobeimeigesantianyaojizhangbeidaqianqingan,gewutianjianzhangbeidekoutou,daqiandexingshinannvyoubie,nanrenhayao,youshouxiashenzuoshoufuxi,sitaiwuzhuang,nvrenshuangshoufuxixiadun。lushangyujianbuxiangshidezhangzhe,yaojugongchuishouwen“saiyin”(manyu,haodeyisi)。ruqima,yaoxiamashanzailupangranglu,dengzhangbeiguoqu,zaishangmaganlu。yuanfangqinyouxiangjian,bufennannvjiexingbaoyaojiemiandali。

时时彩平台注册manzudesangzangyeyouyigeyanbianguocheng。shouzirandilihuanjingdengyinsudeyingxiang,manzuxianmindesangzangyishibijiaojianyue、cushu,cengjingyoutianzang、tuzang、shouzang、shuzang、shuizang、huozangdengxingshi。ruguanqian,manzuyihuozangweizhu,zishunzhidihouqiqi,shoudaohanminzuwenhuadeyingxiang,manzupubiangaichengguancaituzang,bingjiehebenminzutedian,xingchenglemanzudetesezangsu。qianlongyiqian,gedizhufangqirenyouyuyaojiangsizhejiqiyishusonghuijingzhongguqi,suoyirengbaochilehuozang,erjiangguhuizhuanglianhuijing。qianjiayihou,yunxuzhufangqirenzaidangdianzang,yegaiweituzang。zaoqimanzuguizuyourenxunzhisu,hougaiweijianfadaixunhefenshaozhizhadenupu。zainongcundiqu,buzhunxuzaixikanghebeikangsiren,yinweimenshihuorenchurudedifang,yinci,sirenruguanhou,zhinengcongchuanghutaichu。rensihou,zaiyuanzixibianliyiganzi,gaoyizhangwuchizuoyou,shangguabufan,fanzhangjiuchi,yonghongbuheheibuzuocheng。fandetouheweishiheibu,zhongjiansitiaoshihongbu。chubinshi,qinyouyaoqiangfanshangdebu,jizijihaizizuoyifu,renweikebixie,buzuoemengdeng。jintianguangzhoumanzubaochiwanzhengdemanzufenchang,rengnengkandaomanzuzangsudeyixietedian。

gudaimanzuaihaogewu,duoyoushoulie、zhandoudehuodongyanhuaerlai。ruguanhou,wudaobixuanshentiqiangzhuangderen,chuanbaopichangmanzuge,banyixiaogu,chengzuo“xiqiwu”,huowuzheyibanrenbanchenghu、baodengshou,yibanrenqijiamazhuishe,chengzuo“longqingwu”。xiqingyanhuishi,zhukenannvlunfanqiwu,juyixiuyue,fanyixiuyubei,panxuanjintui,yirenchangge,dajiahu“kongqi”xianghe。jinruliaoshenyihou,gengduodexishouleqitaminzudegewuxingshi。zaigongtinglewuzhong,beiyouman、meng、han,chaodengzudewudao。

manzudechuantongtiyuxiangmudadouyushouliexiangguan,youjuzhong、shuaijiao、tiaoma、tiaoluotuojiliubingdeng。“tiaoma”yaozaimafeipaoshi,hengyuemashen;tiaoluotuozeshiconghouyueshangtuobei。tiaomayutiaoluotuo,doushiweihedirenduanbingxiangjieshi,bianyufeishangdiqideqinnajishu,bingchengweijingchangduanliandeyundongxiangmuzhiyi。paobingxiezai19shijizhongyeyiqianshibaqishibingbixucaoliandeyixiangjunshijishu。qianlongshiqi,meinianyinlishiyuedouyaozaibeijingbeihaibingmianshangjianyuebaqizidihuabing,zuoweixunlianbuduidezhiduzhiyi。canjiazheizhongjianyuederenshuda1600ming(meiqi200ren)。zheiyangshengdadehuabingdahui,zaidangshishijushiwushuangde。chulebiaoyansuduwai,haiyouhuayanghuabing、bingshangzuqiubisai、bingshangzaji、huabingshejianxiangmudeng。jiushiqirensuoyongdemubanbingxiehaikezaibeijingminjianzhaodao。

时时彩平台注册zaimanzhangdeshehuilishifazhanzhong,manzuxianminxingchenglefuyuzijiminzutediandesuishiwenhua,ruyuanzaibohaiguoshiqi,jiuyijingyoulechunjie、duanwujiedengjieqingxisu。zheixiexisuyuqishoudaohanwenhuayingxiangyouguan,danyejuyouzijiminzudetese,runvzhenrenzaiduanwujieyoucaiaihao、chiaigao、xizhangmingsuo、sheliujitiandengxisu。qingruguanhou,manzudesuishiwenhuayuhanzuwenhuajiehe,huxiangxishou,jianquyizhi,qijianrengranxianshichumanzusuishiwenhuademouxietese。rumanzuchunjiechijiaozi、chisaqima,manzudeduanwujiebushijisiquyuanershiweilejianshenqubingdengdeng。

时时彩平台注册chunjie,shimanzurenminzhongyaodechuantongjieri。jieqianyaozuomanzuchuantonggaodian——saqima,zhangtieduilian、chuanghua、guajian(anqishufenbietiehong、huang、lan、baise)、gua“fu”zi。wuyefenfa“shenzhi”zhihou,wanbeinanzidaozuneigejia“cisui”。chuxibanyezishi,jiajiachijiaozi,qu“gengsuijiaozi”zhiyi。haiyaobayimeitongqian(fujiayoudeyongjinqianxiaobaojibaoshideng),anfangjiaozizhong.sheichidaolezezhongsuidaji。chuxi,jiajiayuanneishudenglonggan,gaokedaerzhang,shangzhasongzhi,gaoguahongdeng,hongdengzhichuliu,yeyebuxi。gongtingzhongzeyulayueershisirixuangua“tiandeng”,zhicinianeryuechusanrichudengzhi。

zhengyueshiwuyuanxiaojieyoucheng“dengjie”,manzuchuguacaidengwai,haizhizuo“bingdeng”,yuanxiaojiedezhuyaoneirongbushichiyuanxiao,ershiguancaideng。manzujujudeshizhen,jiedaoshangxuanguaqichengqianshangwanzhiqiaoduotiangongdecaideng。nongcunhaiyouyuanxiaojiewanshang“zhengmiandeng”zhisu。wanqingguangzhou“yangchengdengshi”zhong,yiqirensuozhidengzuiweicuicanduomu,chengweiguangzhouyizhongtechan。

manzusuishifengsu,duoyuhanzuxiangjin,danyoubaochizhebushaomanzutese。zhengyueshiliu,beifanggedimanzufunv,shengxingwobingyu“gunbing”,xiangzhengzhequchuhuiqi;zhengyueershiwu“tiancang”,qiqiufengnian;eryuechuer“longtaitou”qiqiufengdiaoyushun;sanyuesan“kaimaban”;qingmingjie“jimu”,shangfenchaliu;duanwujieyaowaichutaqing、jiqiu、saiqiuqiandeng。jinnianlai,gedimanzuduoyouqingzhu“banjinjie”deminsu: houjinshiqi,huangtaijiyu1635niannongli10yue13ri,jiangzuchengdingwei“manzhou”(huozuomanshu、manshu),manzurenbazheiyitianzuoweimanzudedanshengri,jubanmanzu“mingmingri”,ji“banjinjie”deqingzhuhuodong。

时时彩平台注册manzucengxinyangsamanjiao。“saman”shitonggusiyu,yiwei“fengkuangderen”。hanyiweiwushi。manzudesamanjiaojianyouziranchongbai、tutengchongbai、zuxianchongbaiheouxiangchongbaisizhonghanyi,guchongbaideshenzhijiduoyouza。jijidefangshiyebujinxiangtong,yougongtingyuminjianzhibie,fuzheyupinzhezhibiejidiquzhibie、jiazuzhibie。qingwangchaochuqi,huanggonglidesamanduoyoushuxiaixinjueluoshizufangyaneryoucongminglinglidenvrendanren,chengsamantaitai,zhuanguanhuangdijuxinggezhongshendian,kousongmanyujishen,yuminjianweirenzhibingdesamanbutong。zhidaoxinzhongguochengliqian,zaidongbeideninggutaheaihuidengdi,manzurengranbaoyousamanjiao。minjiansamanfenliangzhong,yizhongshitiaoshendesaman,weirenzhibing、wenbu、qiushenqugui,lingyizhongshiguanlijisidejiasaman,fuzejisizuxianshen。guoqumanzudenongmin“xinwubuxinyi”,youbingxianqingsamantiaoshen,wuxiaocaiqingyishengzhenzhi。samanqidaotiaoshenshi,toudaijianmao,zhuiwusezhitiao,xiachuibimian,waixuanxiaojing,shenchuanzhangbuqun,yaoxitongling,jiguerwu,kouzhongniannianyouci。erjiasamanzaigexingshizhongdouyouyiming。zaijisizuxianshitiaoshenchangmanyushenge,gesongyiniandefengshou,huozansongzuxiandegongde。

时时彩平台注册manzudezhengwuxiqiangshang,jiezhiyichibacunkuan、yichibanzhangde“zuzongban”,manyujiao“wocheku”。jishifangzheshendao(hamadao)hejian,biaoshishizuxianshiyongguodedongxi。zaishenbanpangdiaozhehuangsebudaijiao“mamakoudai”,yejiao“zisunniangniang”,qizhongfangzhesan、sizhangsishengjiao“zisunsheng”、“zhangmingsheng”。jizuzhiqian,xianjiangzuzongxiajiedaoxikang,baisanzhangzhuogonghuangmibobo。ranhoujiazhongzhangzhebaxiadakai,quanjiaanbeifenpaixukousangexiangtouhou,fenbiedaonanbeikanghuowaiwuguixia。zheishisamankaishishangzhuang,chuanshangqunzi,xishangyaoling,daishangshenmao,shouchigu,zaizuxianqianqidao,bingkaishitiaoshen。tiaoshixianzhuansanquan,xianghoutuisanbu,biannianzhuci,bianzouwubu,yibanyaotiaosanzhouye。

时时彩平台注册jitianyibandouzaijizudediertian。manzumeijiayuanzhongdouyouyingbi,yingbihouliyizhanggaoganzi,chengwei“suolungan”,dingduanguanyizhujinggu。ji“suolungan”yongquanshenwuzamaodeheigongzhu,zaishahoujiangchanghebangguangdengwufangruganzidedouli,rangwuyalaichi,santianzhineichidiaoweijili。lingwai.jiangzhurouqiesui,fangrushaoxuxiaomizhuzhou,chengweixiaomirouzhou,qingqinyou、linju、shenzhiguolurendoulaichirouzhou。chirouzhoubixuzaiwuwai,erqiebixudangtianchiwan。

时时彩平台注册manzuminjianjisihuodong,guimoshangfenjiajihezuji,shijianshangyouchaojihexijideng,zhongleizeyouxuduo。gediqu,shenzhibutongjiazujisideneirong、fangshi、chengxudengyibujinxiangtong。suowei“yigexingshiyitanxiang”。

qingdai,manzuyeyouchongxinfojiaoheguanyude,danjisiyishirengxiyongsamanjisieryoubieyuqitaminzu。zhufangqirenhouyiyoujiazhongguazuzongdaide,daizhongsuozhuang,weicongguanwaidailaidejiaxiangdenitu。guangzhoumanzuji“luoguangzu”,suojiweidiyidaidaoguangzhouluohudezuxian。

时时彩平台注册manzushiyigeshifenzhongshiwenhuajiaoyudeminzu。qingdaiyilai,zaiminzuguanxibuduanfazhandebeijingxia,manzujiaoyuyuwenhuayeyoulehendadefazhan。manzujiaoyudepujimianjibanxuezhongleichuanglishijilu。youlishuyuguozijiandebaqiguanxue,youliyuzongrenfudezongxuehejueluoxue,zhuanguanzongshi、jueluozididejiaoyu。jingjidiquwai,zaibaqizhufangdifanghefaxiangdidongbeiguangsheguanxue。putongqirenzhuyaoshangdeshibaqiyixue。yixuelishuyugeqicanling,baqiyoutongshisuiyishangruxuexuexi。gezhufangdifangyeduosheyouyixue,yibianpinhanqirenzidiyenengruxuedushu。jiaoshiyibanzaibenqizuolingxiatuixuan,xueximanyumanwenjiqishe,xuexichengjiguidang。houqiyeyouyoudangdihanzurushichongrenjiaoshide,xuexineirongyeduozhuanxianghanzuchuantongwenhua。kejufangmian,qingchuyijiangjiteshebaqikaoshi,bingshemanwenfanyikaoshi。qichu,kejufangmianhaishiqi、hanfenkao,houjianyitikaoshi。jiaoyudepuji,duiyumanzuwenhuadefazhanqidaolezhongdazuoyong。

qingdaijuguojiazhili,bianzuanleyidapileishu,rukangxishide《gujintushujicheng》、qianlongshide《sikuquanshu》deng,jizhonghuawenhualiuxialebaoguidecaifu。manzuzishenyeyouxiangdangshuliangdezhuzuochuanshi。kangxizhuchibianxiude《shulijingyun》、《lixiangkaocheng》、《huangyuquanlantu》dengshu,juyoujiaogaodekexuejiazhi。zaikexuejishuyuyiliaoweishengfangmian,manzuhaiyouxiangdangshuliangdezhuzuoyuchengguo。qianlongdediwuziyongqi,zaijihexueshangzaoyiposhen,qisuanfayujintiandejihexuedatixiangtong。qisunyihuizaishuxuelingyuyiyoujiaogaozaoyi。zuodouyushilabudun,“xiwaiguoyu”,shixiuyangzhongbiaodenengshou。manzudewaikeyixuejiegu,baqizhongchengzhiwei“chuaiban”。zaixiyideshigaobengdailiuxingzhiqian,zaibeijingyizhizhanzhudaodiwei。qianlongjiandeyisangajiushizhengguzhuanjia,tapeiyanglexuduojieguyishi。gedizhufangqirenzhongyeyoubushaodeyiliaoshijia。

zaoqimanwenzhuzuo,ru《manwenlaodang》、《taizushilu》hetulichensuozhu《yiyulu》deng,doushizhongsuozhouzhidezhuzuo,xueximanwenyingyongzhishuru《qingwenqimeng》、《chuxuebidu》、《xuzizhinan》ji《qingwendianyao》deng,shiyihanwenjieshimanyuyufa、dufa、shufajizaojudeshu。manyidehanwenmingzhujiweipubian,hanwenmingzhudaduoyichengmanwen。guanshubujiwai,minjianshuoburu《sanguoyanyi》、《xixiangji》、《hongloumeng》、《jinpingmei》、《liaozhaizhiyi》deng,junyoumanwenyiben。zhakedansuoyi《liaozhaizhiyi》,jiangyuanshushentaibixiandiyichu,wenzibiaodadadaolejigaodejingjie。

manzuwenhuadefazhan,haituchubiaoxianzaimanzuyonghanwenzhushulishuofangmian。zhumingcijianalanxingdesuozhu《yinshuiciji》he《cemaoji》,qingxinziran,juyouhengaodeyishujiazhi。zhengbaiqibaoyi(jianu)caoxueqinsuozhu《hongloumeng》,yifengjianguizujiatingshenghuoweibeijing,guangfanfanyingledangshizhongguoshehuixianshi,beiyuweizhongguofengjianshehuidebaikequanshu,jiangzhongguogudianxiaoshuochuangzuoyishufazhandaolekongqiandegaofeng,zaishijiewenxueshishangzhanjuzhongyaodiwei。qingchaoguizuzhaoliansuozhu《xiaotingzalu》,jiuqierwenmududeqingqianqidezhidu、yili、shijian、renwudeng,zajichengshu,duiyanjiumanmengjiqingdailishijuyoucankaojiazhi。fuchadunchongsuozhu《yanjingsuishiji》,shibeijingsuishifengtudejilu,xianyouduozhongwaiwenyiben。manzuxianlinghebangesuozhu《yetansuilu》,fanyinglemanzuxiacengdebumanqingxu。qingdaimanzuhaichuxianlebushaonvzuojia,xilintaiqing(gutaiqing)suozhu《tianyougeji》,juyouhengaodeyishujiazhi,beiyuweiqingdaidiyinvciren。ciwaihaiyoukedeshizhu《qinpu》、wanyanyueguzhu《huakexianyin》、kuliyalingwenzhu《xiangyinguanxiaocao》deng。

qingzhongyeyihou,qirenzhongchuxianleyizhongxindeguci,zhiyouchangci,meiyoushuobai,peihegubansanxianyanchang,mingwei“qingyinzidishu”,zaibeijingheshenyangdengchengshiliuchuanhenguang,weiyibanshiminjiecengsuoxiai。helvhehanxiaochuangsuozhuzidishu《jiexue》、《shiweitan》deng,liuchuanzuiguang。haiyouyizhongminjian“bajiaogu”changqiangheguci,zhidaoqingmohaipubianliuchuan。

发展现状:

xinzhongguochenglihou,manzuyuquanguogezurenminyidaodangjiazuozhu,xiangshouminzupingdengdequanli。1957nian,beijingshijiaoquxiangjichenglileyipimanzuxiang: huairouxianlabagoumenmanzuxiang、zhuanshanzimanzuxiang、qidaohemanzuxiang、zhangshaoyingmanzuxiang,donghuangliangmanzuxiang、miyunxiantanyingman、mengminzuxiang。1958nianmanzuzizhixianggaiweirenmingongshe。gaigekaifanghou,1983niantanyingmanmengminzuxianghuifuzhongjian,suihouhuifulelabagoumenhezhangshaoyingdengmanzuxiang。yucitongshi,zaiyixiemanzusanjudediqu,manzuyeyuqitashaoshuminzulianhechengliminzuxiang,ru1982nianguizhoubijiediquqianxi、dafang、jinshasanxian,chenglilemiaozuyizumanzuhemiaozumanzudeng6geminzuxiang。

20shiji80niandaizhongqizhi90niandaichu,zailiaoning、hebei、neimenghejilindengshengquluxuchenglileyipimanzuzizhixian: liaoning10gezizhixian,qizhongmanzuyou8ge,fenbieshi: anshanshisuoxiaxiuyanmanzuzizhixian、fushunshisuoxiadexinbin、qingyuanmanzuzizhixian、benxishixiabenxi、huanrenmanzuzizhixian、dandongshixiafengcheng、kuandianmanzuzizhixian、jinzhoushixiabeizhenmanzuzizhixian。hebeisheng6gezizhixian: qizhongmanzuzizhixian4ge,fenbieshiqinhuangdaoshisuoshuqinglongmanzuzizhixian、chengdeshixiakuancheng、fengningmanzuzizhixianheweichangmanzumengguzuzizhixian。jilinshengsipingsuoshuyitongmanzuzizhixian。qizhong,liaoningshengfengchengmanzuzizhixianyu1994nian3yue8rijingguowuyuanpizhunchexiansheshi,beizhenmanzuzizhixianyu1995nian3yue,jingguowuyuanpizhunchexiansheshi。xianzaigedihaiyouyipimanzu(huomanzuyuqitashaoshuminzulianhe)zizhixiang、zhen,jiliaoningsheng87ge,jilinsheng11ge,heilongjiangsheng11ge,hebeisheng81ge,beijing3ge,tianjin1ge,neimengguzizhiqu3ge。

suizhedangdeminzuzhengceluoshi,manzuganbubuduiwubuduanfazhanzhuangda,xiangyoupingdengdezhengzhiquanli。1959nian,beijingshimanzurenkouwei89181ren,qizhongyouganbu1586ren。1978niantongji,gaigekaifangzhiqian,liaoningshengjiuyoumanzuganbu19287ren,qizhonggeleizhuanyejishuganbu10716ren。1978nianpujiexianshengdangxuanweiquanguorendahuidaibiao,manzushuhuajiaqigongjiaoshoudanrenlebeijingshiminzushiwuweiyuanhuifuzhuren,beijingjiquanguogediderenda、zhengxiezhong,douyoubushaomanzudedaibiao。1980nianxiuyanxiandijiujierenmindaibiaodahuishang,zai345mingrenmindaibiaozhong,jingxuanjuchanshengle176mingmanzudaibiao,zhandaibiaozongmingede51%,lvegaoyudangshimanzuzaixiuyanzongrenkouzhongdebili。diwujiequanguorenmindaibiaodahuizhonggongyou17mingmanzudaibiao。1996nian,liaoningquanshengshaoshuminzuganbuyida16wanduoren,zhanquanshengganbuzongshude10%yishang,gejidangzhenglingdaobanzizhong,shaoshuminzuganbuyoulejiaodadezengjia。

xinzhongguochengliyilai,zaidanghezhengfudeguanhuaibangzhuxia,manzujingjidedaohendafazhan。xiuyanmanzuzizhixian,shigebashan、banshui、banfentiandeshanqu。xiuyanxiandemanzurenmintonggezurenmintuanjiefendou,yinongyeweijichu,duozhongjingyingquanmianfazhan,renminqunzhongdeshenghuoshuipingyoulejiaodatigao。jingjiaomiyunxiantanyingdemanzunongmin,zaizhengfubangzhuxiaxingxiushuili,gaizaoguoqudeqiyingzhufang。tanyingdemanzu,huhuyoucunkuan,jiajiayouyuliang,dajiafeichanggaoxingdishuo: “lailegongchandang,tanyingbianleyang”。zaigongyezhanxianshang,dongbeishiwoguolaogongyejidi,yeshimanzurenkouzuiduodejujuqu。dongbeimanzugongren,zhuyaofenbuzaigangtie、jixie、meitan,fangzhihejiaotongyunshudengbumen。guangdamanzugongrenjijitourushehuizhuyishishicaipingtaizhuce,chuxianlebushaojishugexinnengshou,youhenduogexinhechuangzao。shiniandongluanzhong,manzugongrenhegezugongrenyiqijianchishengchan,baozhengleanshangangtieshengchandezhengchangjinxing。

gaigekaifangyilai,manzugezizhidifangjingjishangjunyoulezhangzufazhan。

nongyefangmian,gaigekaifangshimanzujujudiqudenongyefashenglelishixingdebianhua。zaimanzuzhanzongrenkou70%deliaoningshengxinbinmanzuzizhixian,dangdexinjingjizhengce,shinongmindelaodongtongshouruzhenzhenglianxizaiyiqi,dadadidiaodonglenongmindeshengchanjijixing,nongyejingjichixufazhan。2000nianyihou,xinbinxiangenjujiarushimaozuzhihefazhanshichangjingjideyaoqiu,diaozhengnongyechanyehechanpinjiegou,xingchengleyilinye、zhongyaocai、linwayangzhiye、caoshidongwuweiyang、xianggu、youzhimiheshanyecaiweizhudetesenongyewudachanyeweizhudetesenongyexingeju。2004nian,xinbinchengweiquanguoshanquzonghekaifashifanxian、quanguoshengtaishishicaipingtaizhuceshifanxian、quanguojieganyangniujidixian、zhongguolinwazhixiang、liaoningshenglinyeshengchanzhongdianxian、quanshengzhongyaocai、xianggu、mucaishengchanjidixian、liaoningshenglvyoudaxian。jilinshengyitongmanzuzizhixianshiquanguoshangpinliangjidixianzhiyi,liangshidanchanjuquanshengshouwei。zaimanzujujudejingjiaonongcun,tongqitaminzudiquyiyang,shixinglianchanchengbaozerenzhi,dalifazhanminzujujudiqudenong、lin、mu、fu、yuyeduozhongjingying。

gedimanzudeshehuijingjifazhandedaodanghezhengfudedalifuchi。ru1997nian,weiqingzhuqinglong、fengninglianggemanzuzizhixianjianxian10zhounian,hebeishengzhiyouguanbumenweiliangxianluoshigezhongfuchizijin2863wanyuan。fengningmanzuzizhixian2000nianwanchenggudingzichantouzi7.7yiyuan,zhijiezhichileminzudiqushehuijingjidefazhan。tianjinjixiansungezhuangmanzuzizhixiang,dao1999nianzhi,shizhengfulianxusannianbojicaizhengzhuanxiangzijin150wanyuan,bingquanbudaowei,chanshenglejidadeshehuixiaoyihejingjixiaoyi,shizheigezhangqiluohoudeshanxianggenshanglequanshinongcunzhifudebufa。

时时彩平台注册gongyejichujiaoweiboruodemanzujujudiqu,zaigaigekaifanghougongyeyujiaotongyoulezhangzujinbu。2005nianliaoningshengminzuzizhidifangguoneishengchanzongzhishixian310.63yiyuan,jiadagudingzichantourulidu,2005nianwanchengquanshehuigudingzichantouzizonge99.6yiyuan,bi“jiuwu”moqizengzhang262.2%。jilinyitongxiandao2002nianmo,quanxiangongyezhuyaoyoujixiejiagong、yejin、huagong、jiancai、shipin、qingfang、yiyaodengqigexingye。shiyoutianranqikaifajiqipeitaoxiangmu、qichepeitaogongyejidixiangmudengdouyoulehendafazhan。yishengchanyouzhiyushizhuchengdeliaoningshengxiuyanxian,congshiyushikaicai、yuqijiagongheyuqixiaoshourenyuanda10wanren,xiangdangyumei5gexiuyanrenlijiuyouyigexiuyanrencongshi“yuye”,zengjialegezuqunzhongjiuyejihui。nianchuangchanzhi25yiyuan,nianshixianlishui5yiyuan。benximanzuzizhixian,youdazhongxinggongyeqiye38jia,xingchengleyicaikuang、yejin、huagong、jidian、jiancai、qinggongdengweizhudaodemenleiqiquandegongyetixi。hebeifengningmanzuzizhixiangongyejingjiyiziyuankaifaxingweizhudao,chubujianchenghuangjin、baiyinxuanye、tiekuangcaixuan、shicaikaifayijiniangjiu、shipinyinliao、ruzhipinjiagong、niuyangroufengejiagong、ranqishebeizhizao、muzhipinjiagong、zhuanwashuinijianzhucailiaoshengchandenggongyejingjitixi。

时时彩平台注册jiaotongyeyoulejiaodafazhan。“jiuwu”qijian,guojiaheshengyouguanbumenjiadaleduiguojiaji、shengjipinkunminzuzizhixianjiaotongfazhandetouru。liaoning、jilindengmanzujujudiquminzuzizhixianmeixianmeinianzengjiajiaotongshiyebuzhufei30-50wanyuan,duizhongdianxiangmuhejiaotongpingjingwentibofuzhuanxiangzijin,zhichiminzudifangjiaotongfazhan。rutouzi3000wanyuan,datonghuanrenmanzuzizhixianhuabenxiandaaolingsuidao,chedijiejuehuanrenmanzuzizhixianjiaotong“laodanan”wenti。1998nianqian,touzi3000wanyuanwanchengdandongshizhikuandianmanzuzizhixianerjigonglugaizao。duiminzuzizhidifangdexian(xiang)gonglu、qiaohan、luji、heiselumiangaizaodengxiangmuyouxiananpai。1999nian,liaoningshengduiminzuzizhidifangbuzhujiaotongshiyefei460wanyuan,xiuluzijinanpai4.2yiduoyuan,jinxinbinmanzuzizhixiandongnangongluyixiangjiuanpaile6000duowanyuan,dadagaishanleminzuzizhidifangjiaotongluohoudezhuangkuang。liaoningshenghuanrenmanzuzizhixian13gexiangzhen110gecun,quanyougongluxianglian。xiuyanxianmanzuzizhixianshixianlexiangxiangtongboyoulu,70%dexingzhengcuntongboyoulu,91%dexingzhengcuntonggonglu。yitongmanzuzizhixiangonglushishicaipingtaizhuceshixianlechaochangguifazhan,gaosugongluchukouzhibeidaqiaoluqiaotuokuangaizaogongcheng、renmindalushishicaipingtaizhucegongcheng、jiukaigongluyierqigongcheng、yitongzhenzhixiweizhendaolushishicaipingtaizhucegongchengquanbuwancheng,tigaoledaoludengjihetongxingnengli。

manzujujudiquminyingjingjiyededaolejiaodafazhan。xinbinmanzuzizhixianyituohefahuibendiziyuanyoushi,yimucai、linwa、zhongyaocai、shiyongjunhechuchanpindengnongchanpinjingshenjiagongweizhongdian,xingchengleyipiziyuanxingjiagonggongye。peiyuleyipiweidazhongchengshipeitaodeqiyeheqiyejituan。qizhongbufenjituanyichengweiquanguotongxingyedelongtouqiye。chengdoushimanzuxingbanleyangjichang、xiangzhenqiye、minyingqiyehuoqiyejituandeng,cujinshangpinjingjidefazhan。

时时彩平台注册jingjidefazhanshimanzurenminyugezurenminyidaozouxiangfuyu,shenghuoshuipingpubiandedaoxianzhutigao。1997niantianjinshisungezhuangmanzuxiangshehuizongchanzhiwei7000wanyuan,bishangnianzengzhangle26.1%,renjunchunshouruda2266yuan,bishangnianzengzhangle28.9%。2001nianmo,xinbinmanzuzizhixiannongminrenjunshourushixian2466yuan,bishangnianzengzhang12%,cihouzhunianzengzhang。xiuyanmanzuzizhixian2005nianrenminshenghuoshuipingnongminrenjunshourudadao3000yuan,nianjunzengzhang6.9%,chengxiangjuminchuxucunkuanyue26yiyuan。liaoningmanzunongminshourudafuzengjia,zhujiansuoxiaoyuquanshengpingjunshuipingdechaju。2005nianminzuzizhidifangnongminrenjunchunshourudadao3462yuan,。hebeifengningmanzuzizhixian2000nianwanchengguoneishengchanzongzhi13.8yiyuan,wanchenggudingzichantouzi7.7yiyuan,caizhengshouru6500wanyuan,nongminrenjunchunshouru1009yuan。renminshenghuoyoulejiaodagaishan。

manzuwenhuajiaoyushiyeyoulexindefazhan。gedimanzutongqitashaoshuminzuyiyang,cong1984niankaishi,manzuyuqitageshaoshuminzuyiyang,xiangshougaodengyuanxiao、zhongzhuan、zhongjixuexiaodeyouhuiluquzhengce,dianda、zhida、gaoxiaohanshoubu、yedaxuedengzhaoshengyeduishaoshuminzukaoshengjiyuzhaogu,zheijiushishaoshuminzuxueshengyoulegengduodeshengxuejihui。zaiminzujiaoyuhexiwanggongchengdeyinjin,jiaoxuesheshidegaishanfangmian,danggezhengfudoujiyulemanzuyuqitashaoshuminzutongyangdeyouhuizhengce。zaimanwenjiaoyufangmian,yixiekeyandanweihedaxue、beijingmanwenshuyuankaishemanwenban,peixunleyipimanyurencai。

zaiwenxueyishufangmian,henduoyouzaoyidemanzuwenxuejia、yishujia,zaizhongguogongchandangdelingdaoxia,huanfagemingqingchun,weizuguowenhuashiyezuochulejijidegongxian。zhumingmanzujingjuyishujiachengyanqiu,yishushangzaoyijingshen,juyoudutefengge。manzuaiguozuojia、renminyishujialaoshe,xiechule《longxugou》、《nvdianyuan》、《chaguan》、《zhenghongqixia》dengdaliangwenxuezuopin,shoudaoguangdaqunzhongdexiai。laoshexianshengshirenminyongyuanhuainiande“renminyishujia”。manzuyuyanxuejialuochangpei,yibishengdejinglifazhanlehanyuyufa、yinyun、fangyan、cidianbianxieheyuyinshiyandenggongzuo,dalitichanghetuijinshaoshuminzuyuyandediaochayanjiugongzuo,duixinzhongguoyuyankexuedefazhan,zuochulekeguidegongxian。xiangshengyishujiahoubaolin,kangzhanqijianyijingshiyoumingdexiangshengyiren。xinzhongguochengliyihou,houbaolinhuanfaleyishuqingchun,duichuantongxiangshengjinxingxiugai、jiagong,chuangzuoleyipifanyingxianshishenghuodexinxiangsheng,shenshouguoneiwaiguanzhonghuanying,beiyuwei“xiangshengyishudashi”、“guiliguobao”。manzurenminzaiguohuafangmianyeyouhendachengjiu。xinzhongguochenglihou,zairenminzhengfudeguanhuaibangzhuxia,beijingshizhumingde“mianrenlang”、“nirentang”、“hualianjin”dengxuduomanzulaoyirenyoufahuilezuchuandegongyitezhang,zhizuochuxuduoshoudaoguoneiwaihuanyinghexiaidegongyipin。manzuyirenhaishanzhangyudiao、hediao,tamenyijingzhandejiyikehuachuxinzhongguochenglihouzuguozaigetiaozhanxianshangchuxiandezhanxinmianmao。

时时彩平台注册gaigekaifanghedangdefuminzhengce,jilemanzuyichongfenfazhandeguangkuokongjian,manzuzaizhengzhi、jingji、wenhuafangmiandoudedaolexinfazhan。yizhenxingdongbeilaogongyejidiheshishicaipingtaizhuceshehuizhuyixinnongcunweixindeqiji,manzuyuquanguogezurenminyidao,jinruleyigezhanxindelishishiqi。

                                                  (摘自《民族问题五种丛书》之《中国少数民族》卷)

 

 

 
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